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This report describes a pilot project which involved undergraduate medical students’ clinical competence in psychiatry assessed through objective structured clinical examinations for the first time in Zimbabwe. The pilot describes how gaps in medical education can be addressed by collaborative partnerships that allow sharing of knowledge by local institutions and international experts.
Recent studies point to overlap between neuropsychiatric disorders in symptomatology and genetic aetiology.
To systematically investigate genomics overlap between childhood and adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and major depressive disorder (MDD).
Analysis of whole-genome blood gene expression and genetic risk scores of 318 individuals. Participants included individuals affected with adult ADHD (n = 93), childhood ADHD (n = 17), MDD (n = 63), ASD (n = 51), childhood dual diagnosis of ADHD–ASD (n = 16) and healthy controls (n = 78).
Weighted gene co-expression analysis results reveal disorder-specific signatures for childhood ADHD and MDD, and also highlight two immune-related gene co-expression modules correlating inversely with MDD and adult ADHD disease status. We find no significant relationship between polygenic risk scores and gene expression signatures.
Our results reveal disorder overlap and specificity at the genetic and gene expression level. They suggest new pathways contributing to distinct pathophysiology in psychiatric disorders and shed light on potential shared genomic risk factors.
This paper describes a pilot project in which (for the first time, worldwide) psychiatry was taught to undergraduate medical students in Somalia using an evidence-based intervention – the World Health Organization's Mental Health Gap Action Programme Intervention Guide.
Somalia, in the Horn of Africa, suffers violence, political instability and high mortality rates. The recent major drought in Somalia led to what was termed the worst humanitarian disaster in the world. In July 2011 it was reported that nearly 60 000 people had entered into Kenya from Somalia already that year, including 1300 new arrivals every day to the Dadaab refugee camp, described as ‘the largest, most congested and one of the most remote refugee camps in the world’ (see http://www.unhcr.org/4e204b1e9.html). The drought along with mass migration into such poor conditions are likely to have significant short- and long-term mental health consequences for the populations involved.
Simple schizophrenia is a sometimes controversial diagnosis. Here we review the concept with particular reference to its history in diagnostic systems. Using an illustrative real case of a 25-year-old man, we show that there is a need to retain this diagnostic category, which may fit better within proposed dimensional (psychomotor poverty, disorganisation and reality distortion) rather than categorical classifications of schizophrenia. Symptoms of the disorder may be better revealed by functional assessment than by relying on descriptive psychopathology.
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