To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The second and final year of the Erasmus Plus programme ‘Innovative Education and Training in high power laser plasmas’, otherwise known as PowerLaPs, is described. The PowerLaPs programme employs an innovative paradigm in that it is a multi-centre programme, where teaching takes place in five separate institutes with a range of different aims and styles of delivery. The ‘in-class’ time is limited to 4 weeks a year, and the programme spans 2 years. PowerLaPs aims to train students from across Europe in theoretical, applied and laboratory skills relevant to the pursuit of research in laser plasma interaction physics and inertial confinement fusion. Lectures are intermingled with laboratory sessions and continuous assessment activities. The programme, which is led by workers from the Hellenic Mediterranean University and supported by co-workers from the Queen’s University Belfast, the University of Bordeaux, the Czech Technical University in Prague, Ecole Polytechnique, the University of Ioannina, the University of Salamanca and the University of York, has just finished its second and final year. Six Learning Teaching Training activities have been held at the Queen’s University Belfast, the University of Bordeaux, the Czech Technical University, the University of Salamanca and the Institute of Plasma Physics and Lasers of the Hellenic Mediterranean University. The last of these institutes hosted two 2-week-long Intensive Programmes, while the activities at the other four universities were each 5 days in length. In addition, a ‘Multiplier Event’ was held at the University of Ioannina, which will be briefly described. In this second year, the work has concentrated on training in both experimental diagnostics and simulation techniques appropriate to the study of plasma physics, high power laser matter interactions and high energy density physics. The nature of the programme will be described in detail, and some metrics relating to the activities carried out will be presented. In particular, this paper will focus on the overall assessment of the programme.
Informal caregivers of individuals with Parkinson’s disease face a range of responsibilities that increase as the disease progresses. As a result of these stressors, caregivers are vulnerable to decreased health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Guided by the stress process model of caregiving, the present study examined the relations between family cohesion, perceived burden, and mental and physical HRQOL among Parkinson’s disease caregivers in Mexico. It was hypothesized that perceived burden would mediate the relations of family cohesion and mental and physical HRQOL.
Ninety-five family caregivers of individuals with Parkinson’s disease in Mexico City, Mexico, participated in the study. Multiple regression was utilized to conduct mediation analyses.
Results indicated that burden fully mediated the relation between family cohesion and mental HRQOL, and family cohesion was not associated with physical HRQOL.
Findings extend the stress process model cross-culturally and lend support for the importance of family cohesion and perceived burden in determining caregiver mental HRQOL. Clinical health promotion interventions should target perceived burden and family cohesion together to improve mental HRQOL among familial caregivers in Mexico.
A sustainable practice for weed control and crop protection is the incorporation of green manures with phytotoxic potential. It is gaining attention as a way to reduce the use of synthetic herbicides in agriculture and so pot experiments and field trials were conducted to explore the possible use of residues of Acacia species to alleviate weed emergence. We assessed, under greenhouse conditions, the herbicidal effect of phytotoxic manures from Acacia dealbata and Acacia longifolia applied to soil at different doses (1.5 and 3% w/w) on maize growth, some accompanying weeds, and the physiological profile of soil microbes. Applied at a higher dose, A. dealbata residues reduced the emergence of dicotyledons in the short-term (P < 0.05) and, after 30 days, there was a decrease in total weed emergence (P < 0.005) and a mild effect on weed composition, while total weed biomass remained unaffected. Regardless of the inclusion of Acacia residues, the physiological profile of the soil bacterial community did not show significant alterations. Additionally, we tested A. dealbata residues as a mulch or a green manure at the field scale. Although the effects of manures were site-dependent and affected monocot and dicot weeds differentially, dicots were more sensitive. The herbicide potential of acacia residues was only evident for dicots at sites with low-weed density in the seed bank. Nevertheless, due to the absence of phytotoxic effects on maize and minor modifications in the functional profile of bacterial communities, residues of acacia could be used as a complementary tool used together with other practices to reduce the reliance on synthetic herbicides in maize-based cropping systems.
We studied the role played by temperature and rennet concentration in the coagulation process for cheese manufacture and the evaluation of their kinetics. We concluded that temperature is the main factor that determines the kinetics. The rennet concentration was unimportant probably due to the fast action of the enzyme chymosin. The Dynamic light scattering technique allowed measuring the aggregate's size and their formation kinetics. The volume fraction of solids was determined from viscosity measurements, showing profiles that are in agreement with the size profiles. The results indicate that the formation of the aggregates for rennet cheese is strongly dependent on temperature and rennet concentration. The results revealed that at 35·5 °C the volume fraction of solids has the maximum slope, indicating that at this temperature the curd is formed rapidly. The optimal temperature throughout the process was established. Second-order kinetics were obtained for the process. We observed a quadratic dependence between the rennet volume and the volume fraction of solids (curd), thereby indicating that the kinetics of the curd production should be of order two.
To determine the effects of lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS) on children’s Hb, linear growth and development, compared with supplementation with micronutrient powder (MNP).
The study was a two-arm parallel-group randomized controlled trial, where participants received either LNS or MNP for daily consumption during 6 months. Supplements were delivered by staff at government-run health centres. Hb, anthropometric, motor development, language development and problem-solving indicators were measured by trained research assistants when children were 12 months of age.
The study was conducted in five rural districts in the Province of Ambo in the Department of Huánuco, Peru.
We enrolled 6-month-old children (n 422) at nineteen health centres.
Children who received LNS had a higher mean Hb concentration and lower odds of anaemia than those who received MNP. No significant differences in height-for-age, weight-for-height or weight-for-age Z-score, or stunting and underweight prevalence, were observed. Provision of LNS was associated with a higher pre-verbal language (gestures) score, but such effect lost significance after adjustment for covariates. Children in the LNS group had higher problem-solving task scores and increased odds of achieving this cognitive task than children in the MNP group. No significant differences were observed on receptive language or gross motor development.
LNS between 6 and 12 months of age increased Hb concentration, reduced anaemia and improved cognitive development in children, but showed no effects on anthropometric indicators, motor or language development.
Probiotic-based starter cultures are generally used to produce fermented milks with improved characteristics in the final product. In this study, Lactobacillus casei and Streptococcus thermophilus (Lc1-St) were used as the starter inoculum. The transformation kinetics and properties of the final product were compared with systems produced with other inocula. The Lc1-St inoculum delayed the production of lactic acid from 40 to 70 min (depending on temperature and concentration) when compared to Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus (Lb-St) and Lactobacillus johnsonii and Streptococcus thermophilus (La1-St). The Lc1-St inoculum reached the aggregation system faster (30–80 min) than Lb-St (120–210 min) and La1-St (160–220 min), however, the production of exopolysaccharides and organic phosphates was delayed as a consequence of the lack of synergy between Lc1 and St.
Spain approved the first law of Sociedad de Responsabilidad Limitada (SRL)—a legal form similar to the German GmbH—in 1953. However, the SRL had already been used, albeit without its own legislation, since the 1920s. How was this possible in a country whose legal system was based on civil law? Its 1885 Commercial Code lacked the numerus clausus principle for enterprise forms, a feature that gave entrepreneurs unusual freedom in organizing their firms, and in adopting new business forms not defined in the code. It also invites us to rethink the notion of rigidity in civil law.
This study evaluated cross-cultural measurement invariance for the General Self-efficacy Scale (GSES) in a large Brazilian (N = 2.394) and representative German (N = 2.046) and Colombian (N = 1.500) samples. Initially, multiple-indicators multiple-causes (MIMIC) analyses showed that sex and age were biasing items responses on the total sample (2 and 10 items, respectively). After controlling for these two covariates, a multigroup confirmatory factor analysis (MGCFA) was employed. Configural invariance was attested. However, metric invariance was not supported for five items, in a total of 10, and scalar invariance was not supported for all items. We also evaluated the differences between the latent scores estimated by two models: MIMIC and MGCFA unconstraining the non-equivalent parameters across countries. The average difference was equal to |.07| on the estimation of the latent scores, and 22.8% of the scores were biased in at least .10 standardized points. Bias effects were above the mean for the German group, which the average difference was equal to |.09|, and 33.7% of the scores were biased in at least .10. In synthesis, the GSES did not provide evidence of measurement invariance to be employed in this cross-cultural study. More than that, our results showed that even when controlling for sex and age effects, the absence of control on items parameters in the MGCFA analyses across countries would implicate in bias of the latent scores estimation, with a higher effect for the German population.
Under the Ancien Régime in Spain local granaries (in Spanish, pósitos) acted as welfare institutions designed to help small farmers in times of crisis. During the first third of the twentieth century they were subject to an intense reorganisation in Spain and this transformed them into the only microfinance institution to which a significant part of the country's rural population had access. However, as the granaries were beginning to get their finances in order, the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War (1936–1939) and the ensuing change in political regime meant that from 1950 onwards they found themselves relegated to the financial margins. The longevity of the granaries makes them an interesting example of a type of financial institution that was able to adapt to different political regimes by changing the way they operated while maintaining their core objective of supporting small farmers.
As a whole neurogenetic diseases are a common group of neurological disorders. However, the recognition and molecular diagnosis of these disorders is not always straightforward. Besides, there is a paucity of information regarding the diagnostic yield that specialized neurogenetic clinics could obtain. We performed a prospective, observational, analytical study of the patients seen in a neurogenetic clinic at a tertiary medical centre to assess the diagnostic yield of a comprehensive diagnostic evaluation that included a personalized clinical assessment along with traditional and next-generation sequencing diagnostic tests. We included a cohort of 387 patients from May 2008 to June 2014. For sub-group analysis we selected a sample of patients whose main complaint was the presence of progressive ataxia, to whom we applied a systematic molecular diagnostic algorithm. Overall, a diagnostic mutation was identified in 27·4% of our cohort. However, if we only considered those patients where a molecular test could be performed, the success rate rises to 45%. We obtained diagnostic yields of 23·5 and 57·5% in the global group of ataxic patients and in the subset of ataxic patients with a positive family history, respectively. Thus, about a third of patients evaluated in a neurogenetic clinic could be successfully diagnosed.
This work arises from the need to investigate the role of motivational variables in homework involvement and academic achievement of elementary school students. The aims of this study are twofold: identifying the different combinations of student academic goals and analyzing the differences in homework involvement and academic achievement. The sample was composed of 535 fourth-, fifth- and sixth-grade elementary school students, between the ages of 9 and 13 years old. Findings showed three groups with different motivational profiles: a group of students with high multiple goals, another group with a learning goal orientation and a third group defined by a low multiple goals profile. Focusing on the differences between groups, it was observed that the amount of time doing homework was not associated with any motivational profile. Nevertheless, the differences were statistically significant between the motivational groups in the amount of homework (F(2, 530) = 42.59; p < .001; ηp2 = .138), in the management of time spent on homework (F(2, 530) = 33.08; p < .001; ηp2 = .111), and in academic achievement (F(2, 530) = 33.99; p < .001; ηp2 = .114). The effect size was large for the amount of homework performed and was also relatively large in the case of management of time and academic achievement.
Studies of Spanish cooperatives date their spread from the Law on Agrarian Syndicates of 1906. But the first legislative appearance of cooperatives is an 1869 measure that permitted general incorporation for lending companies. The 1931 general law on cooperatives, the first act permitting the formation of cooperatives in any activity, reflects the gradual disappearance of the cooperative's «business» characteristics. In this paper, we trace the Spanish cooperative's legal roots in business law and its connections to broader questions of the freedom of association, the formation of joint-stock enterprises and the liability of investors in business and cooperative entities. Our account underscores the similarities of the organizational problems approach by cooperatives and business firms, while at the same time respecting the distinctive purposes cooperatives served.
Tree species are potential hosts for epiphytes; however in some forests epiphytes have a biased distribution among hosts. In a tropical dry forest of Mexico, previous research showed that there are trees with few epiphytes. It is possible that the bark of these hosts contain allelochemicals that influence epiphyte seed germination. The aims of this study were (1) to determine whether hosts with low epiphyte abundance (Ipomoea murucoides, I. pauciflora and Lysiloma acapulcense) would inhibit seed germination of Tillandsia recurvata through aqueous and organic bark extracts, (2) to determine whether germination of T. recurvata would differ among the hosts with low epiphyte abundance and a host with high epiphyte abundance (Bursera copallifera) and (3) to relate the chemical composition of organic bark extracts with inhibition of T. recurvata seed germination. Hexanic and dichloromethanic extracts were partially chemically characterized. Total phenolics and flavonoids concentrations of methanolic extracts were analysed. Aqueous and organic bark extracts from hosts with few epiphytes inhibited T. recurvata seed germination. Aqueous and dichloromethanic extracts of B. copallifera inhibited slightly the germination of T. recurvata. There was a positive correlation between concentration of flavonoids and inhibition of seed germination. Results suggest that a combination of compounds may be responsible for affecting the germination of T. recurvata. This study demonstrates the chemical effect of aqueous and organic bark extracts from hosts on germination of an epiphytic bromeliad.
Literature on the trophic ecology of small pelagic fish (primarly anchovy Engraulis spp. and sardine Sardinops spp. but including the genera Brevoortia, Clupea, Sardina, Sprattus, and Strangomera) and their interactions with plankton are reviewed using case studies describing research on some economically and ecologically important small pelagic fish from up-welling and temperate non-upwelling ecosystems. Information from morphological studies of the feeding apparatus, field studies on dietary composition and foraging behaviour, and laboratory studies that have provided data for the parameterization of bio-energetic and other models of these small pelagic fish are presented, where available. Two or more small pelagic fish species are described in each case study, and disparities in trophic dynamics between co-occurring anchovy and sardine are consistently seen, supporting the hypothesis that species alternations between the two species could be trophically mediated. Linkages between climate and fish are described for many of the systems, and possible impacts of climate change on some of the species are described.
Small pelagic fish are, in general, microphagous planktivores, and their high abundance levels in upwelling systems, in particular, was attributed to their ability to feed directly on phytoplankton and hence benefit from a short and efficient food chain (Ryther, 1969; Walsh, 1981). This two-step food chain hypothesis, with small pelagic fish being regarded as essentially phytophagus and feeding on large, chain forming diatoms such as Chaetoceros and Fragilaria (Yoneda and Yoshida, 1955; Bensam, 1964; Loukashkin, 1970; King and Macleod, 1976) was initially well supported (Longhurst, 1971; Durbin, 1979; Walsh, 1981).
Sow milk protects the piglet against infectious diseases through a variety of mechanisms. In this study, the presence of potentially probiotic lactic acid bacteria in this biological fluid was investigated. Milk samples were obtained from 8 sows and a total of 19 rod-shaped isolates were selected for identification and assessment of their probiotic potential. RAPD profiling revealed the existence of 8 different genetic profiles among them. One representative of each profile was selected for further characterization and they were identified as Lactobacillus reuteri, Lb. salivarius, Lb. plantarum, Lb. paraplantarum, Lb. brevis and Weissella paramesenteroides. Then, their probiotic potential was evaluated through different assays, including survival in conditions simulating those existing in the gastrointestinal tract, production of antimicrobial compounds, adherence to intestinal mucin, production of biogenic amines, degradation of mucin, and pattern of antibiotic sensitivity. Three strains, Lb. reuteri CR20 (a reuterin-producing strain), Lb. salivarius CELA2 (a bacteriocin-producing strain) and Lb. paraplantarum CLB7 displayed the highest probiotic potential.