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To determine the clinical diagnoses associated with the National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) pneumonia (PNEU) or lower respiratory infection (LRI) surveillance events
Retrospective chart review
A convenience sample of 8 acute-care hospitals in Pennsylvania
All patients hospitalized during 2011–2012
Medical records were reviewed from a random sample of patients reported to the NHSN to have PNEU or LRI, excluding adults with ventilator-associated PNEU. Documented clinical diagnoses corresponding temporally to the PNEU and LRI events were recorded.
We reviewed 250 (30%) of 838 eligible PNEU and LRI events reported to the NHSN; 29 reported events (12%) fulfilled neither PNEU nor LRI case criteria. Differences interpreting radiology reports accounted for most misclassifications. Of 81 PNEU events in adults not on mechanical ventilation, 84% had clinician-diagnosed pneumonia; of these, 25% were attributed to aspiration. Of 43 adult LRI, 88% were in mechanically ventilated patients and 35% had no corresponding clinical diagnosis (infectious or noninfectious) documented at the time of LRI. Of 36 pediatric PNEU events, 72% were ventilator associated, and 70% corresponded to a clinical pneumonia diagnosis. Of 61 pediatric LRI patients, 84% were mechanically ventilated and 21% had no corresponding clinical diagnosis documented.
In adults not on mechanical ventilation and in children, most NHSN-defined PNEU events corresponded with compatible clinical conditions documented in the medical record. In contrast, NHSN LRI events often did not. As a result, substantial modifications to the LRI definitions were implemented in 2015.
The relationship between core self-evaluation (Judge, Locke & Durham 1997) and job satisfaction and organisational commitment is explored. Two workplace environment factors are examined as potential mediators of these relationships; empowerment and organisational climate. The sample for the study consisted of employees from one quick-service restaurant chain well regarded in employee and community relations. The findings of the research support mediation of the core self-evaluation and job satisfaction relationship as well as the core self-evaluation and organisational commitment relationship. A discussion of the relevance of these findings for hospitality practitioners and the hospitality literature alike is provided.
Radiofrequency catheter ablation is standard treatment for children with re-entrant supraventricular tachycardias. Autonomic changes have been noted after such ablation for atrioventricular nodal re-entry tachycardia, but not as well documented with atrioventricular re-entry over an accessory pathway.
Methods and results
In 10 normal paediatric volunteers and 12 children referred for electrophysiologic testing and radiofrequency ablation of supraventricular tachycardia, non-invasive autonomic function tests and tilt-table testing were performed, and the variability in 24-h heart rate was analysed. Patients with supraventricular tachycardia underwent these tests both 24–72 h before and 24 h after ablation. Patients with tachycardia underwent additional autonomic testing to assess the sensitivity of baroreceptors and the intrinsic heart rate with autonomic blockade immediately before and after ablation. One non-invasive autonomic function test, namely handgrip, demonstrated significant differences (p < 0.05) in diastolic blood pressure before and after ablation, though these values did not differ from controls. Significant decreases were noted in two indexes of the variability of heart rate before and after ablation (p < 0.05). Certain tilt test variables also demonstrated significant differences between controls and those with tachycardia subsequent to ablation. Intracardiac testing demonstrated changes (p < 0.05) in sinus cycle lengths, effective refractory periods and/or blood pressures at baseline and during testing of the sensitivity of baroreceptors before and after ablation. These changes were consistent with increased sympathetic or decreased parasympathetic tone. With autonomic blockade, these differences were abolished.
Catheter ablation of accessory pathways in children was associated with changes consistent with increased sympathetic or decreased parasympathetic tone. These autonomic changes persisted 24 h after the ablation procedure.
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