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This chapter mentions multi-arm randomized trials in multiple hypothesis testing and non-inferiority trials with more than two treatments. Randomization is as central to the conduct of noninferiority as it is to superiority trials. Well-defined endpoints, clearly prioritized and stated in advance, are important components of powerful trials yielding useful results. As with most aspects of the analysis of a randomized clinical trial, the standard to which the worst performance of the treatment vs. the control is to be compared should be specified in advance. Non-inferiority trials can make useful scientific contributions when ethical considerations disallow a placebo or other inactive control. However, unlike the scenario of a superiority trial with a placebo, their assay sensitivity is not directly ensured by randomized comparison and so there are numerous cautions in their use. The measures of study quality mentioned in key comparisons between superiority and noninferiority trials are examined.