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Clinical Enterobacteriacae isolates with a colistin minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ≥4 mg/L from a United States hospital were screened for the mcr-1 gene using real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and confirmed by whole-genome sequencing. Four colistin-resistant Escherichia coli isolates contained mcr-1. Two isolates belonged to the same sequence type (ST-632). All subjects had prior international travel and antimicrobial exposure.
Underlying mechanisms responsible for the cholesterol-lowering effect of β-glucan have been proposed, yet have not been fully demonstrated. The primary aim of this study was to determine whether the consumption of barley β-glucan lowers cholesterol by affecting the cholesterol absorption, cholesterol synthesis or bile acid synthesis. In addition, this study was aimed to assess whether the underlying mechanisms are related to cholesterol 7α hydroxylase (CYP7A1) SNP rs3808607 as proposed by us earlier. In a controlled, randomised, cross-over study, participants with mild hypercholesterolaemia (n 30) were randomly assigned to receive breakfast containing 3 g high-molecular weight (HMW), 5 g low-molecular weight (LMW), 3 g LMW barley β-glucan or a control diet, each for 5 weeks. Cholesterol absorption was determined by assessing the enrichment of circulating 13C-cholesterol over 96 h following oral administration; fractional rate of synthesis for cholesterol was assessed by measuring the incorporation rate of 2H derived from deuterium oxide within the body water pool into the erythrocyte cholesterol pool over 24 h; bile acid synthesis was determined by measuring serum 7α-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one concentrations. Consumption of 3 g HMW β-glucan decreased total cholesterol (TC) levels (P=0·029), but did not affect cholesterol absorption (P=0·25) or cholesterol synthesis (P=0·14). Increased bile acid synthesis after consumption of 3 g HMW β-glucan was observed in all participants (P=0·049), and more pronounced in individuals carrying homozygous G of rs3808607 (P=0·033). In addition, a linear relationship between log (viscosity) of β-glucan and serum 7α-HC concentration was observed in homozygous G allele carriers. Results indicate that increased bile acid synthesis rather than inhibition of cholesterol absorption or synthesis may be responsible for the cholesterol-lowering effect of barley β-glucan. The pronounced TC reduction in G allele carriers of rs3808607 observed in the previous study may be due to enhanced bile acid synthesis in response to high-viscosity β-glucan consumption in those individuals.
Studies have shown that a mother's history of childhood maltreatment is associated with her child's experience of internalising and externalising difficulties.
To characterise the mediating pathways that underpin this association.
Data on a mother's history of childhood maltreatment, depression during pregnancy, postnatal depression, maladaptive parenting practices and her child's experience of maltreatment and internalising and externalising difficulties were analysed in an Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) sample of 9397 mother–child dyads followed prospectively from pregnancy to age 13.
Maternal history of childhood maltreatment was significantly associated with offspring internalising and externalising difficulties. Maternal antenatal depression, postnatal depression and offspring child maltreatment were observed to significantly mediate this association independently.
Psychological and psychosocial interventions focused around treating maternal depression, particularly during pregnancy, and safeguarding against adverse childhood experiences could be offered to mothers with traumatic childhood histories to help protect against psychopathology in the next generation.
Training for the clinical research workforce does not sufficiently prepare workers for today’s scientific complexity; deficiencies may be ameliorated with training. The Enhancing Clinical Research Professionals’ Training and Qualifications developed competency standards for principal investigators and clinical research coordinators.
Clinical and Translational Science Awards representatives refined competency statements. Working groups developed assessments, identified training, and highlighted gaps.
Forty-eight competency statements in 8 domains were developed.
Training is primarily investigator focused with few programs for clinical research coordinators. Lack of training is felt in new technologies and data management. There are no standardized assessments of competence.
Non-governmental organisations operate as nodes in networks of ‘managerialism’ – bundles of often Northern, corporate-inspired knowledge and practices that promote ‘good governance’ under neoliberalism. Managerialism is double-sided: it can guard against corruption and help ensure accountability, but it can also be culturally disjunctive, reinforcing North–South power imbalances while diffusing the political potential of NGOs. In this paper we present a framework for studying managerialism's global circulation and discuss a series of empirical findings from a multi-year study of NGOs in the Mexican state of Oaxaca. We conclude by commenting on managerialism's influence on NGOs during the social upheavals of 2006, highlighting its differential and contingent impact on social and political change in Oaxaca.
To describe the identification, management, and clinical characteristics of hospitalized patients with influenza-like illness (ILI) during the peak period of activity of the 2009 pandemic strain of influenza A virus subtype H1N1 (2009 H1N1).
Retrospective review of electronic medical records.
Patients and Setting.
Hospitalized patients who presented to the emergency department during the period October 18 through November 14, 2009, at 4 hospitals in Cook County, Illinois, with the capacity to perform real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction testing for influenza.
Vital signs and notes recorded within 1 calendar day after emergency department arrival were reviewed for signs and symptoms consistent with ILI. Cases of ILI were classified as recognized by healthcare providers if an influenza test was performed or if influenza was mentioned as a possible diagnosis in the physician notes. Logistic regression was used to determine the patient attributes and symptoms that were associated with ILI recognition and with influenza infection.
We identified 460 ILI case patients, of whom 412 (90%) had ILI recognized by healthcare providers, 389 (85%) were placed under airborne or droplet isolation precautions, and 243 (53%) were treated with antiviral medication. Of 401 ILI case patients tested for influenza, 91 (23%) had a positive result. Fourteen (3%) ILI case patients and none of the case patients who tested positive for influenza had sore throat in the absence of cough.
Healthcare providers identified a high proportion of hospitalized ILI case patients. Further improvements in disease detection can be made through the use of advanced electronic health records and efficient diagnostic tests. Future studies should evaluate the inclusion of sore throat in the ILI case definition.
To investigate the effects of ramp rate on the transient enhanced diffusion of boron in silicon, laser thermal processing (LTP) in the nonmelt regime has been investigated. A nonmelt laser anneal has been performed on a 5 keV, 1e15 boron implant. The implant energy of 5keV was chosen to simplify analysis. A rapid thermal anneal (RTA) at 1000°C and furnace anneals at 750 °C were used to show the effect of post annealing on the LTPd samples. Results show the sheet resistance drops by up to a factor of two for samples receiving the nonmelt LTP and the RTA compared with the samples just receiving the RTA. An increase in the hall mobility was also observed for the samples receiving the LTP. The nonmelt LTP was also shown to strongly affect the extended defect density. During post anneals, a higher density of smaller defects evolved in the samples receiving the LTP.
A thin film solid state microbattery has been used to power an O2 microsensor. The microbattery was fabricated using RF magnetron sputtering for the solid oxide/sulfide electrolyte and the TiS2 cathode. Vacuum evaporation was used for the deposition of LiI and Li anode. rhe microbattery is approximately 10 µm in thickness. The microbattery has an OCV of 2.4-2.5 V and shows close to 100% utilization to a 1.8 V cutoff when discharged between 10 and 135 µA/cm2. The microbattery is capable of supplying 2 second pulses of greater than 2 mA/cm2. The microbattery is rechargeable with over 200 cycles of 70% utilization to a 1.8 V cutoff at current densities up to 135 µA/cm2.
The O2 microsensor consists of a silk-screened Au working and Ag electrode. The Ag electrode was anodized to provide an Ag/AgCl counter electrode. The current produced at the sensor is proportional to the dissolved O2 concentration of an aqueous solution upon application of 0.6 V between the two electrodes.
We report the chemical synthesis of Fe-core/Au-shell nanoparticles (Fe/Au) by a reverse micelle method, and the investigation of their growth mechanisms and oxidation-resistant characteristics. The core-shell structure and the presence of the Fe and Au phases have been confirmed by transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, Mössbauer spectroscopy, and inductively coupled plasma techniques. Additionally, atomic-resolution Z-contrast imaging and electron energy loss spectroscopy in a scanning transmission electron microscope have been used to study details of the growth processes. The Au-shells grow by nucleating on the Fe-core surfaces before coalescing. First-order reversal curves, along with the major hysteresis loops of the Fe/Au nanoparticles have been measured as a function of time in order to investigate the evolution of their magnetic properties. The magnetic moments of such nanoparticles, in the loose powder form, decrease over time due to oxidation. The less than ideal oxidation-resistance of the Au shell may have been caused by the rough Au surfaces. In a small fraction of the particles, off-centered Fe cores have been observed, which are more susceptible to oxidation. However, in the pressed pellet form, electrical transport measurements show that the particles are fairly stable, as the resistance and magnetoresistance of the pellet do not change appreciably over time. Our results demonstrate the complexity involved in the synthesis and properties of these heterostructured nanoparticles.
Amorphous carbon films are (a-C:H) of interest because of their useful physical properties. They are extremely hard and chemically inert, resisting degradation by both acids and alkalis. They are insoluble and can be conformably coated onto virtually any substrate. These properties make the films ideal protective coatings on magnetic disks and tools. We have studied several thin (one to two micron) films prepared by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition with varying radiofrequency fields strengths to determine structural differences at the atomic level. Several properties of the films, such as hardness and wear rate, are dependent on deposition power. We have found that the sp2/sp3 ratio increases with increasing deposition power. Thus, films that are harder are more “graphitic” and less “diamondlike”. The films studied here contain 11–16 atomic percent hydrogen, most of which is associated with sp3 carbon sites. At least two distinct phases of hydrogens exist. Variable temperature studies reveal that, in contrast to amorphous hydrogenated silicon, proton linewidths in carbon films are temperature dependent, suggesting some molecular motion is present at room temperature.
The advantages of fluorine co-implantation on reducing the deep P junction profile is investigated and commented as a possible valuable solution for further scaling of the NMOS transistors spacer length. On PMOS transistors, Ge+C+B cocktail junctions lead to improved short channel effects control, S/D resistance and performance over the conventional approaches. Additional laser annealing induces a partial dissolution of the doping clusters in the junction and lower the S/D transistors resistance. A performance improvement is demonstrated both for NMOS and PMOS with cocktail junctions activated by spike RTA and additional laser annealing.
As extensions have been up till now always used in N-MOS transistors with an activation anneal. Here, we show that also alternative doping by P can result in junction extensions that are extremely abrupt and shallow thus suitable for upcoming transistor technologies. P extensions are manufactured by amorphization, carbon co-implantation and conventional rapid thermal annealing (RTA). The impact of Si interstitials (Sii) flux suppression on the formation of P junction extensions during RTA is demonstrated. We have concluded that optimization of implants followed by RTA spike offers excellent extensions with depth Xj = 20 nm (taken at 5 × 1018 at./cm3), abruptness 3 nm/dec. and Rs = 326 Ω. Successful implementation of these junctions is straightforward for N-MOS devices with 30 nm gate length and results in an improved short channel effects with respect to the As reference.
We present B junction extensions that are extremely abrupt and shallow manufactured by amorphization, C co-implantation and conventional rapid thermal annealing (RTA). Resulting junctions have abruptnesses of 2 nm/dec better than as-implanted profiles. The most shallow B junction that has been manufactured is 15 nm deep and Rs = 626 Ω/sq. Successful implementation of these junctions is straightforward for P-MOS 30 nm gate length devices.