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There is international interest in the training of psychological therapists to deliver evidence-based treatment for common mental health problems. The UK Improving Access to Psychological Therapies (IAPT) programme, one of the largest training initiatives, relies on competent therapists to successfully deliver cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) and promote good patient outcome.
To evaluate an IAPT CBT training course by assessing if trainees’ clinical skills improve during training and reach competency standards, and to report patient outcome for submitted training cases. To investigate a possible relationship between trainee competence and patient outcome. To explore professional differences during training.
CBT trainee (n = 252) competence was assessed via audio recordings of therapy sessions at the beginning, middle and end of training. Patient pre- to post-treatment outcomes were extracted from submitted training cases (n = 1927). Differences in professional background were examined across competence, academic final grade and tutorial support.
CBT trainees attained competence by the end of the course with 77% (anxiety recordings) and 72% (depression recordings) improving reliably. Training cases reported pre- to post-treatment effect sizes of 1.08–2.26 across disorders. CBT competence predicted a small variance in clinical outcome for depression cases. Differences in professional background emerged, with clinical psychologists demonstrating greater competence and higher academic grades. Trainees without a core professional background required more additional support to achieve competence.
Part of a new CBT therapist workforce was successfully trained to deliver relatively brief treatment effectively. Trainees without a core profession can be successfully trained to competence, but may need additional support. This has implications for workforce training.
The “pathway to care” concept offers a helpful framework for preparing national dementia plans and strategies and provides a structure to explore the availability and accessibility of timely and effective care for people with dementia and support for their informal carers. Within the framework of the JPND-MEETINGDEM implementation project the pathways to regular day-care activities and the Meeting Centers Support Programme (MCSP), an innovative combined support form for people with dementia and carers, was explored.
An exploratory, descriptive, qualitative, cross-country design was applied to investigate the pathways to day care in several regions in four European countries (Italy, Poland, United Kingdom, and the Netherlands).
Before implementation of MCSP, of the four countries the United Kingdom had the most structured pathway to post-diagnostic support for people with dementia. MCSP introduction had a positive impact on the pathways to day-care activities in all countries. MCSP filled an important gap in post-diagnostic care, increasing the accessibility to support for both people with dementia and carers. Key elements such as program of activities, target group, and collaboration between healthcare and social services were recognized as success factors.
This study shows that MCSP fills (part of) the gap between diagnosis and residential care and can therefore be seen as a pillar of post-diagnostic care and support. Further dissemination of Meeting Centers in Europe may have a multiple impact on the structure of dementia services in European countries and the pathways to day care for people with dementia and their carer(s).
Substantial policy, communication and operational gaps exist between mental health services and the police for individuals with enduring mental health needs.
To map and cost pathways through mental health and police services, and to model the cost impact of implementing key policy recommendations.
Within a case-linkage study, we estimated 1-year individual-level healthcare and policing costs. Using decision modelling, we then estimated the potential impact on costs of three recommended service enhancements: street triage, Mental Health Act assessments for all Section 136 detainees and outreach custody link workers.
Under current care, average 1-year mental health and police costs were £10 812 and £4552 per individual respectively (n = 55). The cost per police incident was £522. Models suggested that each service enhancement would alter per incident costs by between −8% and +6%.
Recommended enhancements to care pathways only marginally increase individual-level costs.
Background: The UK Department of Health Improving Access to Psychological Therapies (IAPT) initiative set out to train a large number of therapists in cognitive behaviour therapies (CBT) for depression and anxiety disorders. Little is currently known about the retention of IAPT CBT trainees, or the use of CBT skills acquired on the course in the workplace after training has finished. Aims: This study set out to conduct a follow-up survey of past CBT trainees on the IAPT High Intensity CBT Course at the Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience (IoPPN), King's College London (KCL), one of the largest IAPT High Intensity courses in the UK. Method: Past trainees (n = 212) across 6 cohorts (2008-2014 intakes) were contacted and invited to participate in a follow-up survey. A response rate of 92.5% (n = 196) was achieved. Results: The vast majority of IAPT trainees continue to work in IAPT services posttraining (79%) and to practise CBT as their main therapy modality (94%); 61% have become CBT supervisors. A minority (23%) have progressed to other senior roles in the services. Shortcomings are reported in the use of out-of-office CBT interventions, the use of disorder-specific outcome measures and therapy recordings to inform therapy and supervision. Conclusions: Past trainees stay working in IAPT services and continue to use CBT methods taught on the course. Some NICE recommended treatment procedures that are likely to facilitate patients’ recovery are not being routinely implemented across IAPT services. The results have implications for the continued roll out of the IAPT programme, and other future large scale training initiatives.
The idea that gas may be present in clusters of galaxies originated with the missing mass problem—the observation that galaxies in clusters were moving so fast that the inferred galaxy masses (using conventional mass to light ratios for the galaxies) were not enough to hold them together caused astronomers to speculate that the “missing mass” was in the form of gas. Subsequent observations in the 21 cm and La lines as well as radio, optical and x-ray continuum observations have effectively ruled out this possibility in a large number of clusters. However, there is evidence for the presence of gas in smaller quantities in many clusters.