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OBJECTIVES/GOALS: 1. To determine older adults’ opinions on content that is valuable for inclusion in a falls-prevention self-management plan. 2. To determine older adults’ recommendations of mode(s) to promote adherence to falls prevention recommendations. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: On-on-one semi structured interviews with older adults are ongoing to determine their opinions on content for inclusion in a falls-prevention self-management plan and recommendations for mode of delivery. As in our prior investigations, we used the theoretical constructs of the health belief model to develop our questions. Interviews will be recorded and transcribed. Data will be entered into MAXQDA12 and coded. Concurrent data collection and analysis will continue until theoretical saturation of themes are achieved. Through this iterative process, we will identify content and mode of delivery for a falls- prevention self-management plan for implementation with older adults. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: We anticipate we will have conducted enough interviews to achieve data saturation by February, 2020. We expect the results of this qualitative investigation to guide the development of a falls-prevention self-management plan that includes targeted implementation and adherence strategies deemed acceptable and feasible for use among older adults following community-based falls-risk screenings. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Falls are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among older adults. Adherence to falls prevention among older adults is poor, even among those that voluntarily seek out recommendations. The results of this study will assist with development and pilot testing of a falls-prevention self-management plan to assist older adults to adhere to recommendations.
This essay outlines the capacity-building work of the American Archaeological Mission to Libya between the years 2005 and 2016. This work was made possible by grants from the US Embassy to Libya, the US State Department Ambassadors Fund for Cultural Preservation (AFCP) and the Bureau of Near Eastern Affairs in Washington, DC. The principles and objectives underlying our capacity-building programme were inspired by the 2003 UNESCO World Heritage Centre Mission Report by Giovanni Boccardi, in particular his recommendation that the Libyan Department of Antiquities obtain training in the best modern cultural heritage management practices via sustained partnerships with external professionals and organisations.
Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) has long been associated with a wide variety of clinical syndromes and immune dysregulation, many which result in secondary bacterial infections. Current understanding of immune cell interactions that result in activation and tolerance are explored in light of BVDV infection including: depletion of lymphocytes, effects on neutrophils, natural killer cells, and the role of receptors and cytokines. In addition, we review some new information on the effect of BVDV on immune development in the fetal liver, the role of resident macrophages, and greater implications for persistent infection.
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a concern of contemporary military
deployments. Whether milder TBI leads to enduring impairment remains
To determine the influence of deployment TBI, and posttraumatic stress
disorder (PTSD) and depression symptoms on neuropsychological and
A sample of 760 US Army soldiers were assessed pre- and post-deployment.
Outcomes included neuropsychological performances and subjective
In total, 9% of the participants reported (predominantly mild) TBI with
loss of consciousness between pre- and post-deployment. At
post-deployment, 17.6% of individuals with TBI screened positive for PTSD
and 31.3% screened positive for depression. Before and after adjustment
for psychiatric symptoms, TBI was significantly associated only with
functional impairment. Both PTSD and depression symptoms adjusted for TBI
were significantly associated with several neuropsychological performance
deficits and functional impairment.
Milder TBI reported by deployed service members typically has limited
lasting neuropsychological consequences; PTSD and depression are
associated with more enduring cognitive compromise.
Recent work in the Wadi bel Gadir in the southern chora region of Cyrene, in particular the discovery of two temple precincts by the Italian Mission (Missione Archeologica a Cirene della Università degli Studi di Urbino) as well as an intensive topographic survey by the newly reconstituted University of Pennsylvania Expedition (now the Cyrenaica Archaeological Project) is providing important information about urban development to the west and southwest of the city of Cyrene. This paper offers an overview of the previous work in the area and some thoughts on the potential implications of the recent discoveries by the Italian Mission led by Professor Mario Luni and the Cyrenaican Archaeological Project (CAP) directed by Professor Susan Kane.