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Bacillus species have caused healthcare-associated outbreaks of invasive disease as well as pseudo-outbreaks. We report an outbreak investigation of blood cultures positive for Bacillus cereus associated with alcohol prep pads (APPs) contaminated with B. cereus and Bacillus species resulting in a rapid internal product recall and subsequent international product recall.
Epidemiologic and microbiologic outbreak investigation.
A 300-bed tertiary care children's hospital in Aurora, Colorado.
Patients with blood or cerebrospinal fluid cultures positive for B. cereus.
Three patients with blood cultures positive for B. cereus were identified in late 2010. Breaches in procedural and surgical techniques, common interventions, and products were explored. The following 3 common products were cultured: sterile saline syringes, chlorhexidine/alcohol skin preparation solution, and APPs. Repetitive sequence-based polymerase chain reaction (Rep-PCR) was used to compare isolates obtained from patients and from APPs and was confirmed by independent pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.
There appeared to be a significant increase in blood cultures positive for B. cereus during 2009-2010. B. cereus and other Bacillus species were cultured from the internal contents of 63.3% of APPs not labeled as sterile, and 8 of the 10 positive lots were manufactured after 2007. None of the isolates obtained from the patients matched strains isolated from the APPs. However, some lots of APPs had strains that were indistinguishable from one another.
APPs that were not labeled as sterile were contaminated with Bacillus species. The product was immediately recalled internally and replaced with APPs from another manufacturer that were labeled as sterile. On January 3, 2011, the manufacturer voluntarily recalled its APPs. Healthcare facilities, healthcare providers, and users of APPs should avoid the use of APPs not specifically labeled as sterile.
To determine the source of Burkholderia cepacia complex associated with a hospital outbreak and describe the measures taken to identify and confirm the source.
A 250-bed, tertiary care pediatric hospital in Denver, Colorado.
An epidemiologic investigation was used to identify possible causes for an apparent outbreak of B. cepacia complex in pediatric patients who had new positive cultures with this organism from December 2003 to February 2004. Chart review, microbiology reports, surgical records, site visits, literature review, staff interviews, and cultures of common products and equipment were performed to determine a source of contamination. Random amplified polymorphic DNA and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis typing, performed by 2 independent laboratories, were used for molecular typing of patient and source isolates.
Five pediatric patients had new positive B. cepacia complex cultures from either the sinus or the respiratory tract, and all 5 patients had prior exposure to 0.05% oxymetazoline hydrochloride Major Twice-A-Day 12-hour nasal spray (Proforma, Miami, FL). Four of the 5 patients had isolates that were identical to the B. cepacia complex isolates recovered from the unopened Twice-A-Day 12-hour nasal spray.
Intrinsic contamination of Major Twice-A-Day 12-hour nasal spray with B. cepacia complex resulted in nosocomial transmission to 4 patients at our facility and resulted in a voluntary product recall by the manufacturer. B. cepacia complex species are common contaminants of an increasing variety of nonsterile medical products. Enhanced culture techniques may be useful in evaluating possible product contamination, suggesting additional measures that should be considered to assure the safety of products that may be used in high-risk patients.
Intravenous prostanoids (epoprostenol and treprostinil) are effective therapies for pulmonary arterial hypertension but carry a risk of catheter-related bloodstream infection (CR-BSI). Prevention of CR-BSI during long-term use of indwelling central venous catheters is important.
To evaluate whether using a closed-hub system and waterproofing catheter hub connections reduces the rate of CR-BSI per 1,000 catheter-days.
Single-center open observational study (January 2003-December 2008).
Pediatric patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension who received intravenous prostanoids.
In July 2007, CR-BSI preventive measures were implemented, including the use of a closed-hub system and the waterproofing of catheter hub connections during showering. Rates of CR-BSI before and after implementing preventive measures were compared with respect to medication administered and type of bacterial infection.
Fifty patients received intravenous prostanoid therapy for a total of 41,840 catheter-days. The rate of CR-BSI during the study period was 0.51 infections per 1,000 catheter-days for epoprostenol and 1.38 infections per 1,000 catheter-days for treprostinil, which differed significantly (P < .01 ). CR-BSIs caused by gram-negative pathogens occurred more frequently with treprostinil than with epoprostenol (0.91 infections per 1,000 catheter-days vs 0.08 infections per 1,000 catheter-days; P <.01). Patients treated with treprostinil after the implemented changes had a significant decrease in CR-BSI rate (1.95 infections per 1,000 catheter-days vs 0.19 infections per 1,000 catheter-days; P <.01).
The closed-hub system and the maintenance of dry catheter hub connections significantly reduced the incidence of CR-BSI (particularly infections caused by gram-negative pathogens) in patients receiving intravenous treprostinil.
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