In India, non-communicable diseases (NCDs) accounted for nearly 62% of all deaths in 2016. Four NCDs – high blood pressure, diabetes, asthma and heart disease – together accounted for over 34% of these deaths. Using data from two rounds of the India Human Development Surveys (IHDSs), levels and changes in the prevalence rates of the four NCDs (based on diagnosed cases) among adults aged 15–69 years in India between 2004–05 and 2011–12 were examined by socioeconomic and demographic factors and for five broad occupation categories. The socioeconomic and demographic risk factors for each of these NCDs were determined using multiple linear logistic regression analysis of pooled data from two rounds of the IHDS. The results showed that while urban residence, age, female sex and education were associated with higher odds of high blood pressure, diabetes and heart disease, household economic status was associated with higher odds for all four NCDs. Furthermore, increased higher odds of high blood pressure, diabetes and heart disease were found for the legislator/senior official/professional occupation group compared with non-workers. Skilled agricultural/elementary workers had lower odds of high blood pressure, diabetes, asthma and heart disease. Craft/machine-related trade workers had higher odds of high blood pressure and diabetes, and reduced odds of asthma and heart disease. Compared with non-workers, the odds ratios for asthma were lower for all other occupational categories. During the two study decades, the Government of India implemented several programmes designed to improve the health and well-being of its people. However, more focused attention on the adult population is needed, and special attention should be paid to the issue of the occupational health of the working population through the strict implementation of work place safety protocols and the removal of potential health hazards.