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This study evaluated the effect of music intervention on the anxiety and stress responses of patients who underwent an interventional cardiac catheterisation.
The study design was a pre- and post-test randomised controlled trial that included 94 patients who underwent a transcatheter atrial septal defect closure. Patients were allocated to receive either music intervention (n = 47) or usual care (n = 47) during the interventional cardiac catheterisation. Music intervention effectiveness was examined in terms of anxiety, salivary cortisol level, and heart rate variability.
The average age of participants was 45.40 years (±16.04) in the experimental group and 47.26 years (±13.83) in the control group. Two-thirds (66.0%) of the participants in each group were women. State anxiety (F = 31.42, p < 0.001), anxiety-numerical rating scale (F = 20.08, p < 0.001), salivary cortisol levels (F = 4.98, p = 0.021), and low-frequency component/high-frequency component ratio (F = 17.31, p < 0.001) in the experimental group were significantly reduced compared with those in the control group at the end of the music intervention.
This study provides practical evidence of a reduction in anxiety and stress response from music intervention preceding an interventional cardiac catheterisation, indicating that this intervention should be considered in clinical management.
Studies have reported that nuts intake is potentially beneficial to cardiometabolic health. However, there have been heterogeneous results regarding the association between nut intake/consumption and the risk of diabetes mellitus (DM). Insulin resistance (IR) is a major pathophysiology of DM. Thus, this study was to assess the association between nuts consumption and IR.
A retrospective cross-sectional study.
Multivariable-adjusted OR and 95 % CI for increased IR (adjusted OR (95 % CI)) were calculated according to the frequency of consuming one serving dose (15 g) of nuts including peanut, pine nut and almond (< 1/month, 1/month–1/week, 1–3/week, 3–5/week, ≥ 5/week). Elevated IR was defined in homoeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance corresponding to the fourth quartile levels within each study group. Subgroup analysis was conducted for gender, glycaemic status (normal, prediabetes and DM) and age (≥ and < 40 years).
379 310 Koreans who received health check-up.
Compared with nut consumption < 1/month (reference), nuts consumption ≥ 1/month had the lower OR and 95 % CI for elevated IR (1/month–1/week: 0·90 (95 % CI 0·89, 0·92), 1–3/week: 0·90 (95 % CI 0·87, 0·92), 3–5/week: 0·94 (95 % CI 0·89, 0·98) and ≥ 5/week: 0·90 (95 % CI 0·86, 0·94)). This association was more remarkable in women, normal glycaemic group and young age group (< 40 years). However, men, prediabetes, DM and old age group did not show the significant association.
Nuts consumption ≥ 1/month was less associated with elevated IR. Increased nuts consumption may have a favourable effect on IR.
The longitudinal relationship between depression and the risk of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is uncertain. We examined: (a) the association between depressive symptoms and incident hepatic steatosis (HS), both with and without liver fibrosis; and (b) the influence of obesity on this association.
A cohort of 142 005 Korean adults with neither HS nor excessive alcohol consumption at baseline were followed for up to 8.9 years. The validated Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression score (CES-D) was assessed at baseline, and subjects were categorised as non-depressed (a CES-D < 8, reference) or depression (CES-D ⩾ 16). HS was diagnosed by ultrasonography. Liver fibrosis was assessed by the fibrosis-4 index (FIB-4). Parametric proportional hazards models were used to estimate the adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs).
During a median follow-up of 4.0 years, 27 810 people with incident HS and 134 with incident HS plus high FIB-4 were identified. Compared with the non-depressed category, the aHR (95% CIs) for incident HS was 1.24 (1.15–1.34) for CES-D ⩾ 16 among obese individuals, and 1.00 (0.95–1.05) for CES-D ⩾ 16 among non-obese individuals (p for interaction with obesity <0.001). The aHR (95% CIs) for developing HS plus high FIB-4 was 3.41 (1.33–8.74) for CES-D ⩾ 16 among obese individuals, and 1.22 (0.60–2.47) for CES-D ⩾ 16 among non-obese individuals (p for interaction = 0.201).
Depression was associated with an increased risk of incident HS and HS plus high probability of advanced fibrosis, especially among obese individuals.
To determine the level of vitamin D and to identify the association between vitamin D and depressive symptoms in apparently healthy Korean male adults.
A retrospective study design. Among 43 513 participants between 1 March and 30 November 2018, after eliminating participants with a history of depression or vitamin D deficiency, 9058 were included. To determine the level of vitamin D, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] was measured. To assess the level of depression, the Korean version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) was used.
Male adults who underwent routine health check-ups.
The average vitamin D level was 22·31 ± 7·09 ng/ml as 25(OH)D, while the number of subjects in the vitamin D insufficiency group with a finding of <20 ng/ml was 3783 (41·8 %). The mean CES-D score in all subjects was 8·31 ± 5·97 points, and the proportion of the depressive symptoms group with a score of ≥16 was 8·71 %. The OR of patients in the depressive symptoms group also being in the insufficiency group was found to be 1·49 (95 % CI 1·12, 2·00).
A total of 41·8 % of apparently healthy male adults had vitamin D levels <20 ng/ml. We identified an association between vitamin D insufficiency and depressive symptoms in apparently healthy Korean male adults.
Patients with subthreshold bipolar disorder (sub-BP) experience severe clinical courses and functional impairments, which are comparable to those with bipolar I and II disorders (BP-I and -II). Nevertheless, lifetime prevalence, socioeconomic correlates and diagnostic overlaps of bipolar spectrum disorder (BPS) have not yet been estimated in the general population of South Korean adults.
This study aimed to estimate the lifetime prevalence, correlates and diagnostic comorbidities of BPS using a validated screening instrument in the nationwide general population of South Korea.
A total of 3013 adults among the 2011 Korean Epidemiologic Catchment Area survey (KECA-2011) completed face-to-face interviews using the Korean versions of the composite international diagnostic interview 2.1 and mood disorder questionnaire (K-CIDI and K-MDQ).
The lifetime prevalence of BPS in the South Korean adults was measured to be 4.3% (95% CI 2.6–6.9). Nearly 80% of the subjects with BPS were codiagnosed with other DSM-IV nonpsychotic mental disorders: 35.4% (95% CI 24.2–48.5) for major depression and dysthymic disorder, 35.1% (95% CI 27.7–43.3) for anxiety disorders and 51.9% (95% CI 40.5–63.1) for alcohol and nicotine use disorders. Younger age (18–34 years) was the only sociodemographic predictor of BPS positivity (P = 0.014) and the diagnostic overlap patterns were different between men and women.
Positivity for BPS was estimated to be much greater than the prevalence of DSM-IV BP in South Korea. Most of the respondents with BPS were diagnosed with other major mental disorders and this might be related with mis and/or underdiagnosis of clinically relevant Sub-BP.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a main pathogen causing community-acquired pneumonia in children and young adults. Since the emergence of macrolide-resistant M. pneumoniae in the early 2000s in Japan, it has been increasingly reported worldwide as a growing problem in treatment for children. With increasing macrolide-resistant M. pneumoniae and limited data regarding its characterization and molecular analysis, we investigated the dominant M. pneumoniae strains during the recent outbreak in South Korea, and evaluated if there was an association between a specific type and macrolide resistance. Between October 2014 and December 2016 in South Korea, 249 respiratory specimens obtained from patients with confirmed M. pneumoniae pneumonia were genotyped the P1 adhesin gene, and the mutations associated with resistance (A2063G and A2064G) were tested by sequencing the targeted domain V regions of the 23S ribosomal RNA gene. Results revealed that M. pneumoniae type 1 were predominant, which was strongly associated with macrolide-resistance during the whole study period. This is the first study assessing whether M. pneumoniae subtype is related to macrolide resistance during the outbreak of M. pneumoniae.
Text readability assessment is a challenging interdisciplinary endeavor with rich practical implications. It has long drawn the attention of researchers internationally, and the readability models since developed have been widely applied to various fields. Previous readability models have only made use of linguistic features employed for general text analysis and have not been sufficiently accurate when used to gauge domain-specific texts. In view of this, this study proposes a latent-semantic-analysis (LSA)-constructed hierarchical conceptual space that can be used to train a readability model to accurately assess domain-specific texts. Compared with a baseline reference using a traditional model, the new model improves by 13.88% to achieve 68.98% of accuracy when leveling social science texts, and by 24.61% to achieve 73.96% of accuracy when assessing natural science texts. We then combine the readability features developed for the current study with general linguistic features, and the accuracy of leveling social science texts improves by an even higher degree of 31.58% to achieve 86.68%, and that of natural science texts by 26.56% to achieve 75.91%. These results indicate that the readability features developed in this study can be used both to train a readability model for leveling domain-specific texts and also in combination with the more common linguistic features to enhance the efficacy of the model. Future research can expand the generalizability of the model by assessing texts from different fields and grade levels using the proposed method, thus enhancing the practical applications of this new method.
Over the last two decades, there has been a rapid expansion in the number of Taiwan programmes at universities in America and Europe; however, few of these Taiwan programmes have attempted to develop teaching courses. Where Taiwan courses have been introduced, they have tended to be in isolation and not well integrated into existing academic programmes. Among the universities with Taiwan programmes, only two have attempted to create comprehensive teaching programmes through which students can graduate with a degree in Taiwan studies: SOAS University of London and the University of Texas at Austin. The purpose of this paper is to compare the experiences of these two institutions in developing such niche teaching programmes. It begins with a discussion of how these two programmes first emerged and then goes on to review their distinct development trajectories and key features. The paper offers an analysis of how these two programmes were able not only to survive but also to expand their offerings and thrive in an academic environment that should be hostile to such niche programmes. It concludes with a review of the remaining challenges facing these teaching programmes.
We trace Sn nanoparticles (NPs) produced from SnO2 nanotubes (NTs) during lithiation initialized by high energy e-beam irradiation. The growth dynamics of Sn NPs is visualized in liquid electrolytes by graphene liquid cell transmission electron microscopy. The observation reveals that Sn NPs grow on the surface of SnO2 NTs via coalescence and the final shape of agglomerated NPs is governed by surface energy of the Sn NPs and the interfacial energy between Sn NPs and SnO2 NTs. Our result will likely benefit more rational material design of the ideal interface for facile ion insertion.
Bovine mastitis, an inflammation of the udder, results in reduced milk production and poor milk quality. Mastitis is usually, but not always, a response to pathogen infection. High milk yield can produce oxidative stress in the mammary tissue. High milk yield is also known to be associated with bovine mastitis. Thus, in the current study, we hypothesised that oxidative stress increases inflammatory responses in bovine mammary cells. To examine the hypothesis, we produced cellular oxidative stress and investigated resulting inflammatory responses in bovine mammary alveolar cells (MAC-T). To produce oxidative stress, cells were treated with the reactive oxygen species (ROS; e.g., superoxide anion)-producing agent, menadione (MD; 0–10 µm; 6 h). To ensure the ROS-induced responses, cells were pretreated with an antioxidant NAC (0–10 mm; 1 h). Results showed that MD elevated intracellular ROS levels and protein expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), a biomarker of inflammation. Pretreatment of cells with NAC attenuated MD-induced COX-2 expression by scavenging intracellular ROS and enhancing intracellular glutathione levels. MD-induced COX-2 expression was mediated by activation of extracellular signal receptor-activated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), Akt, and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB). NAC attenuated activation of these intracellular signalling molecules. Treatment of cells with pharmacological inhibitors for ERK1/2, Akt, and NF-κB confirmed the association of these signalling pathways in MD-induced COX-2 expression. These results support our hypothesis that oxidative stress, which is found in high-yielding dairy cows, can produce cellular inflammation in bovine mammary alveolar cells and prevention of oxidative stress can attenuate such pathological responses. This may be relevant for cases of clinical mastitis for which no pathogen can be isolated.
Our aim was to examine the prevalence, correlates, and association of depressive and anxiety disorders with quality of life (QoL) and such other outcomes as the need for psychosocial services in cancer patients.
A total of 400 patients participated in a multicenter survey involving five cancer centers located throughout Korea. The Short-Form Health Survey, the MD Anderson Symptom Inventory, the Mini-Mental Adjustment to Cancer (MINI-MAC), and Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview were administered.
The prevalence rates for depressive and anxiety disorders were 16 and 17.1%, respectively. Younger age and poor Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status, and all physical symptoms, as well as helplessness/hopelessness, anxious preoccupation (AP), and cognitive avoidance (CA) on the MINI-MAC were found to be significantly related to depressive disorder (DD) in a univariate logistic regression analysis. Metastases, the symptoms of disturbed sleep, dry mouth, and numbness or tingling, as well as AP and CA were significantly correlated with anxiety disorder (AD) in the univariate analysis. In the multivariate analyses, only AP was significant for AD (odds ratio = 2.94, p < 0.001), while none reached statistical significance for DD. Psychiatric comorbidity status had a detrimental effect on various dimensions of QoL. Patients with DD or AD reported a significantly higher need for professional psychosocial services.
Significance of results:
Given the substantial prevalence and pervasive impact of DD and AD on various aspects of QoL, its assessment and care should be integrated as a regular part of oncological care throughout the cancer continuum.
This study investigates the relationship between insomnia and cognitive dysfunctions including, subjective memory impairment (SMI), mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and dementia, by considering depression in a community sample of elderly individuals.
Data for 1,740 elderly individuals aged 65 years and over were obtained from a nationwide dementia epidemiological study conducted in South Korea. Cognitive functional status was assessed by the Mini-Mental State Examination and the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Packet Clinical Assessment Battery. Insomnia was defined as the presence of at least one of the four sleep complaints (difficulty in initiating sleep, difficulty in maintaining sleep, early morning awakening, and non-restorative sleep), accompanied by moderate to severe daytime consequences. Depression was evaluated using the Geriatric Depression Scale.
The prevalence of insomnia in the patients with SMI, MCI, and dementia was found to be 23.2%, 19.6%, and 31.0%, respectively. The patients with SMI, MCI, and dementia were significantly more likely to have insomnia and the four sleep complaints than the normal comparison patients. After adjusting for sociodemographic factors, the significant relationships between cognitive dysfunctional status and insomnia remained. However, after adjusting for sociodemographic factors and depression, no significant relationships with any of the sleep complaints or insomnia remained.
Insomnia is a very common complaint in the elderly with SMI, MCI, and dementia. Depression might play an important factor in the relationship between insomnia and cognitive dysfunctional status in the elderly.
A few epidemiological data are available assessing the associations of intakes of sodium (Na) and potassium (K) with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We aimed to examine the associations of dietary intake of Na and K with the prevalence of ultrasound-diagnosed NAFLD. We performed a cross-sectional study of 100 177 participants (46 596 men and 53 581 women) who underwent a health screening examination and completed a FFQ at the Kangbuk Samsung Hospital Total Healthcare Centers, South Korea, between 2011 and 2013. NAFLD was defined by ultrasonographic detection of fatty liver in the absence of excessive alcohol intake or other known causes of liver disease. The proportion of NAFLD was 35·6 % for men and 9·8 % for women. Increasing prevalence of NAFLD was observed with increasing Na intake. The multivariable-adjusted prevalence ratios (PR) of NAFLD comparing the highest with the lowest quintile of energy-adjusted Na intake were 1·25 (95 % CI 1·18, 1·32; Ptrend<0·001) in men and 1·32 (95 % CI 1·18, 1·47; Ptrend <0·001) in women. However, when we additionally adjusted for body fat percentage, the association became attenuated; the corresponding PR of NAFLD were 1·15 (95 % CI 1·09, 1·21) in men and 1·06 (95 % CI 0·95, 1·17) in women. No inverse association was observed for energy-adjusted K intake. Our findings suggest that higher Na intake is associated with a greater prevalence of NAFLD in young and middle-aged asymptomatic adults, which might be partly mediated by adiposity.
In interpreting radiocarbon dating results, it is important that archaeologists distinguish uncertainties derived from random errors and those from systematic errors, because the two must be dealt with in different ways. One of the problems that archaeologists face in practice, however, is that when receiving dating results from laboratories, they are rarely able to critically assess whether differences between multiple 14C dates of materials are caused by random or systematic errors. In this study, blind tests were carried out to check four possible sources of errors in dating results: repeatability of results generated under identical field and laboratory conditions, differences in results generated from the same sample given to the same laboratory submitted at different times, interlaboratory differences of results generated from the same sample, and differences in the results generated between inner and outer rings of wood. Five charred wood samples, collected from the Namgye settlement and Hongreyonbong fortress, South Korea, were divided into 80 subsamples and submitted to five internationally recognized 14C laboratories on a blind basis twice within a 2-month interval. The results are generally in good statistical accordance and present acceptable errors at an archaeological scale. However, one laboratory showed a statistically significant variance in ages between batches for all samples and sites. Calculation of the Bayesian partial posterior predictive p value and chi-squared tests rejected the null hypothesis that the errors randomly occurred, although the source of the error is not specifically known. Our experiment suggests that it is necessary for users of 14C dating to establish an organized strategy for dating sites before submitting samples to laboratories in order to avoid possible systematic errors.