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In the past, alliance portfolio configuration (APC) studies concentrated mostly on the direct alliances or partners of a focal firm. However, a focal firm is also influenced by indirect alliances or partners. This study endeavors to focus on this aspect of APC. It contributes to APC research by extending the scope to three degrees from a focal firm. To assess the effects of extended APCs, 186 3-year window snapshots were created of the extended APCs of 31 Korean bio-pharmaceutical firms. These snapshots range from 2007 to 2014. The effects of structure (density), size (number of alliances and partners), and relationships to firm innovation were measured using the two-step generalized method of moments estimates. The results show that structural sparseness and larger-sized extended APCs are more favorable conditions for innovation, and that structural sparseness and size have a positive relationship to innovation performance.
A single-item depression measure may not be adequate in capturing the complex entity of mental health, despite wide use of this indicator in community studies. This study evaluated the accuracy of a single-question depression measure in comparison to two composite indices–the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CESD) and the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS).
Materials and methods:
A total of 800 elderly participants ranging from 60 to 89 years of age and residing in Seoul were recruited using a multistage sampling scheme in 2015. The survey was conducted by trained interviewers with a constructed questionnaire. Reliability and validity measures such as the Kappa index, sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, and AUC were used to evaluate the accuracy of the single question measure. Socio-demographic group differences in accuracy were compared by age, sex, marital status, education, employment, and financial status.
The prevalence of depression by a single-question measure was much lower than those of CESD and GDS (5.5%, 12.3%, and 12.1%, respectively). The sensitivity of the single-item measure, based on CESD and GDS, was extremely low at 30.6% and 36.1%. In the subgroup analysis, however, there was a marked educational discrepancy in all accuracy measures; in sensitivity, people with a university degree or higher showed about 2.4 times higher sensitivity than those having only a primary school education.
The results show that a single-question depression measure should be used with caution. In addition, the single-question measure could substantially underestimate depression among the risk group of older adults.
The National Institute of Neurological Disease and Stroke-Canadian Stroke Network (NINDS-CSN) 5-minute neuropsychology protocol consists of only verbal tasks, and is proposed as a brief screening method for vascular cognitive impairment. We evaluated its feasibility within two weeks after stroke and ability to predict the development of post-stroke dementia (PSD) at 3 months after stroke.
We prospectively enrolled subjects with ischemic stroke within seven days of symptom onset who were consecutively admitted to 12 university hospitals. Neuropsychological assessments using the NINDS-CSN 5-minute and 60-minute neuropsychology protocols were administered within two weeks and at 3 months after stroke onset, respectively. PSD was diagnosed with reference to the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association statement, requiring deficits in at least two cognitive domains.
Of 620 patients, 512 (82.6%) were feasible for the NINDS-CSN 5-minute protocol within two weeks after stroke. The incidence of PSD was 16.2% in 308 subjects who had completed follow-up at 3 months after stroke onset. The total score of the NINDS-CSN 5-minute protocol differed significantly between those with and without PSD (4.0 ± 2.7, 7.4 ± 2.7, respectively; p < 0.01). A cut-off value of 6/7 showed reasonable discriminative power (sensitivity 0.82, specificity 0.67, AUC 0.74). The NINDS-CSN 5-minute protocol score was a significant predictor for PSD (adjusted odds ratio 6.32, 95% CI 2.65–15.05).
The NINDS-CSN 5-minute protocol is feasible to evaluate cognitive functions in patients with acute ischemic stroke. It might be a useful screening method for early identification of high-risk groups for PSD.
To clarify the effect of bainite in microstructure on hydrogen diffusion and trapping behavior and susceptibility to hydrogen assisted cracking of API grade linepipe steel, three specimens with different fraction of bainite in the microstructure are used. Firstly, hydrogen diffusion and trapping behaviors of the steels are studied by utilizing the electrochemical permeation technique. For fundamental analysis on the experimental data, a variety of diffusion parameters were determined by curve-fitting with a theoretical diffusion equation based on numerical finite difference method (FDM). It indicates that the steel with higher fraction of bainite exhibits much higher sub-surface hydrogen concentration and much lower apparent hydrogen diffusivity. This behavior can be understood by the fact that the steel containing higher fraction of bainite in the microstructure has higher concentration of reversible traps and consequent larger diffusible hydrogen, leading to much slower diffusion kinetics of hydrogen atoms. Consequently, the susceptibility to hydrogen induced cracking (HIC) and sulfide stress cracking (SSC) of the steel with higher fraction of bainite increases significantly.
In this study, we sought predictors of mortality in children with acute myocarditis and of incomplete recovery in the survivor group. We classified our patients into three groups according to their outcomes at last follow-up: full recovery was classified as group I, incomplete recovery was classified as group II, and death was classified as group III. In total, 55 patients were enrolled in the study: 33 patients in group I, 11 patients in group II, and 11 patients in group III. The initial left ventricular fractional shortening – left ventricular fractional shortening – was significantly lower in group III (p=0.001), and the left ventricular end-diastolic dimension z score was higher in groups II and III compared with group I (p=0.000). A multivariate analysis showed that the left ventricular end-diastolic dimension z score (odds ratio (OR), 1.251; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.004–1.559), extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (OR, 9.842; 95% CI, 1.044–92.764), and epinephrine infusion (OR, 18.552; 95% CI, 1.759–195.705) were significant predictors of mortality. The left ventricular end-diastolic dimension z score was the only factor that predicted incomplete recovery in the survivor group (OR, 1.360; 95% CI, 1.066–1.734; p=0.013). The receiver operating characteristic curve of the left ventricular end-diastolic dimension z score at admission showed a cut-off level of 3.01 for predicting mortality (95% CI, 0.714–0.948). In conclusion, a high left ventricular end-diastolic dimension z score on admission was a significant predictor of worse outcomes, both regarding mortality and incomplete recovery.
In interpreting radiocarbon dating results, it is important that archaeologists distinguish uncertainties derived from random errors and those from systematic errors, because the two must be dealt with in different ways. One of the problems that archaeologists face in practice, however, is that when receiving dating results from laboratories, they are rarely able to critically assess whether differences between multiple 14C dates of materials are caused by random or systematic errors. In this study, blind tests were carried out to check four possible sources of errors in dating results: repeatability of results generated under identical field and laboratory conditions, differences in results generated from the same sample given to the same laboratory submitted at different times, interlaboratory differences of results generated from the same sample, and differences in the results generated between inner and outer rings of wood. Five charred wood samples, collected from the Namgye settlement and Hongreyonbong fortress, South Korea, were divided into 80 subsamples and submitted to five internationally recognized 14C laboratories on a blind basis twice within a 2-month interval. The results are generally in good statistical accordance and present acceptable errors at an archaeological scale. However, one laboratory showed a statistically significant variance in ages between batches for all samples and sites. Calculation of the Bayesian partial posterior predictive p value and chi-squared tests rejected the null hypothesis that the errors randomly occurred, although the source of the error is not specifically known. Our experiment suggests that it is necessary for users of 14C dating to establish an organized strategy for dating sites before submitting samples to laboratories in order to avoid possible systematic errors.
What does it mean to say that it is 'We the People' who 'ordain and establish' a constitution? Who are those sovereign people, and how can they do so? Interweaving history and theory, constitutional scholar Chaihark Hahm and political theorist Sung Ho Kim attempt to answer these perennial questions by revisiting the constitutional politics of postwar Japan and Korea. Together, these experiences demonstrate the infeasibility of the conventional assumption that there is a clearly bounded sovereign 'people' prior to constitution-making that stands apart from both outside influence and troubled historical legacies. The authors argue that 'We the People' only emerges through a deeply transformative politics of constitutional founding and, as such, a democratic constitution and its putative author are mutually constitutive. Highly original and genuinely multidisciplinary, this book will be of interest to democratic theorists and scholars of comparative constitutionalism as well as observers of ongoing constitutional debates in Japan and Korea.