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Nucleos(t)ide analogues (NAs) are widely used for antiviral therapy in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB), but real-world data on treatment patterns and long-term clinical outcomes are not always available. Using data from electronic medical records between January 2011 and December 2016 in Shanghai, China, we evaluated patient characteristics, treatment patterns and clinical outcomes in patients with CHB. There were 6688 patients in the study cohort. The incidences of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) were 41.0‰ and 6.8‰ person-years, respectively. There were more cirrhosis and HCC cases among patients who had shorter NA treatment duration (<365 days), or who were less compliant (<80%). In addition, increased risk of cirrhosis and HCC was observed in patients who did not achieve hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) loss/seroconversion. Moreover, patients with cirrhosis developed after antiviral treatments had a higher incidence of HCC (adjusted hazard ratio 15.86, 95% confidence interval 7.35–34.24). Good compliance with treatment and longer treatment duration significantly decreased the risk of developing cirrhosis and HCC. HBsAg loss seemed to be a protective factor for cirrhosis/HCC in NAs-treated patients with CHB, and cirrhosis was a confirmed risk factor for HCC development as expected.
CrFeNiTix (x = 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, and 0.6 molar ratio) compositionally complex alloys were fabricated by vacuum arc melting to investigate the microstructure, hardness, and compressive properties. The results revealed that CrFeNiTix alloys consisted of the principal face-centered cubic (FCC) phase and body-centered cubic (BCC) solid solution, with an amount of (Ni, Ti)-rich hexagonal close-packed phase. CrFeNiTix alloys exhibited the typical dendrite. Ti0.2 and Ti0.3 alloys were composed of FCC and BCC solid solutions in the dendrite, as well as ε (Ni3Ti) and R (Ni2.67Ti1.33) phases in the inter-dendrite, simultaneously. For Ti0.4, Ti0.5, and Ti0.6 alloys, (Fe, Cr)-rich solid solution separated out and ε phase transformed into R phase gradually. Meanwhile, TEM analysis indicated that Ti0.4 alloy matrix consisted of the principal FCC phase containing (Ni, Ti)-rich intragranular nanoprecipitates. The hardness values of CrFeNiTix alloys were increased with the addition of Ti content and the high compressive strength of CrFeNiTix alloys was maintained, which was attributed to the solid solution strengthening and precipitation hardening.
Changes in soil chemistry in response to varying climatic regimes can alter the equilibria of soil systems and result in different clay minerals. Variations in phyllosilicate clay composition can reflect temporal and spatial climatic changes, such as summer/winter monsoon cycles. The objective of this research was to investigate the mineralogy of the clay fractions as a proxy for determining variations in the East Asian monsoon climate, based on a section at Chaoyang in China spanning the last 0.423 Ma BP. The clay mineralogy record in the Chaoyang section was compared with other proxies as recorded in this section and with other palaeoclimatic indicators, including oxygen isotopes from oceanic sediments and loess–palaeosol sections on the Chinese Loess Plateau (CLP). The results from clay mineralogy and related climatic studies show that the summer monsoon has a trend of four increased stages and four decreased stages; whereas the winter monsoon displays the opposite trend. During the last 0.423 Ma BP, the strongest winter monsoon occurred around 0.243–0.311 Ma BP. During this period, which included an intense winter monsoon, the soil in the section had the least illite, one of the smallest kaolinite and illite/Chlorite (I/C) indices and an overall decreasing clay content. The period 0.225–0.243 Ma BP had the strongest summer monsoon over the last 0.423 Ma BP. This period had the greatest amount of illite, the highest I/C index, greater overall clay content and the strongest magnetic susceptibility signal. Additionally, this section contained the smallest mean grain size. The multi-monsoon climate cycles of alternating cold-dry and warm-moist conditions as recorded in the Chaoyang section corresponded well with multiple glaciation cycles based on deep sea sediments. This indicates that the Chaoyang section provides a record of palaeoclimate changes in northeast China that can be linked to mineralogical suites to assist in reconstructing the palaeoclimate over the Late Middle Pleistocene, and complements the global palaeoclimate records in the CLP.
It remains unclear whether a crystalline basement exists in SE China (including Taiwan), whether the formation of the Tananao metamorphic belt in Taiwan was linked to subduction of the Palaeo-Pacific Plate, and whether the source rocks of the sedimentary sequences in the metamorphic belts are late Mesozoic or Palaeozoic in age. Field investigations and zircon age data in the present study indicate that there is no pre-Palaeozoic gneiss (crystalline basement) in Taiwan (although orthogneisses were produced during deformation and metamorphism of Mesozoic granites), and investigations of the metasediments show that the sedimentary sequences in the Tailuko and Yuli belts are similar. Moreover, LA-ICP-MS dating of detrital zircons from the Pingtan–Dongshan belt in Fujian Province yields a cluster of 206Pb–238U ages at ~ 210–190 Ma, and the Tailuko and Yuli belts in Taiwan have similar clusters of detrital zircon ages at 200 Ma, 160 Ma, 120 Ma and 110 Ma, as well as a later overprinting caused by arc–continent collision. The cathodoluminescence images and trace-element characteristics of the zircons show that they were originally magmatic in origin. This finding, combined with the Hf isotope data, indicates that the sources of sediments in the Tananao belt (Tailuko and Yuli belts) were relatively close to an active continental margin, and that both the Tailuko and Yuli belts have similar sedimentary sources. From the margin of the Chinese mainland to Taiwan, the metasediments seem to represent a continuous sequence of deposits ranging in age from Jurassic to Cretaceous, but with the sediments becoming progressively younger towards the east. It can be inferred that the sediments in the Tailuko and Yuli belts were continental-shelf sequences with sources in SE China.
To retrospectively analyze the rescue and treatment of pediatric patients by the Chinese Red Cross medical team during the Nepal earthquake relief.
The medical team set up a field hospital; the pediatric clinic consisted of 1 pediatrician and several nurses. Children younger than 18 years old were placed in the pediatric clinic for injury examination and treatment.
During the 7-day period of medical assistance (the second to third week after the earthquake), a total of 108 pediatric patients were diagnosed and treated, accounting for 2.8% of the total patients. The earthquake-related injuries mainly required surgical dressing and debridement. No severe limb fractures or traumatic brain injuries were found. Infection of the respiratory tract, the gastrointestinal tract, and the skin were the most common ailments, accounting for 42.3%, 18.5%, and 16.7%, respectively, of the total treated patients.
Two to 3 weeks after the earthquake, the admitted pediatric patients mainly displayed respiratory and gastrointestinal infections. When developing a rescue plan and arranging medical resources, we should consider the necessity of treating non–disaster-related conditions. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2016;page 1 of 4)
The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of hyperhomocysteinaemia (HHCY; total plasma homocysteine (tHcy) concentration >15 μmol/l) and its major determinants in healthy Chinese northerners. A descriptive and cross-sectional study was conducted in Shaanxi Province, China. The study sample included 2645 participants (1042 men and 1603 women) aged >20 years. Demographic characteristics and lifestyle factors were assessed via questionnaire interviews and physical examination. Plasma levels of homocysteine and folate and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene polymorphism were determined according to standard methods. The prevalence of HHCY was 67·7 % (81·4 % in men and 58·8 % in women). The geometric mean of tHcy concentration was 19·1 μmol/l. The OR of HHCY were 0·44 (95 % CI 0·34, 0·57) for women v. men; 1·95 (95 % CI 1·41, 2·70), 1·41 (95 % CI 1·05, 1·88) and 0·76 (95 % CI 0·64, 0·89) for participants with smoking and alcohol drinking cessation and improved physical activity levels, respectively; 0·25 (95 % CI 0·17, 0·38), 0·33 (95 % CI 0·22, 0·49) and 0·56 (95 % CI 0·36, 0·88) for participants with an education level of elementary school, secondary school and university v. illiterate, respectively; 1·41 (95 % CI 1·13, 1·75) and 3·05 (95 % CI 2·35, 3·97) for participants with CT and TT v. CC genotype at MTHFR 677C → T polymorphism, respectively. These results demonstrate that the prevalence of HHCY is considerably high in Chinese northerners, especially in TT subjects, suggesting that implementation of tHcy-lowering strategies, such as lifestyle changes, is necessary.
The relationship between hydrophobicity and the protective effect of whey protein hydrolysates (WPHs) against oxidative stress was studied. Whey protein was first hydrolysed by pepsin and trypsin to obtain WPHs. After absorbed by macroporous adsorption resin DA201-C, three fractions named as M20, M40, and M60 were eluted by various concentrations of ethanol. The hydrophobicity showed a trend of increase from M20 to M60. Antioxidant ability test in vitro indicated that all the three components of WPHs displayed reasonably good antioxidant ability. Moreover, with the increase of hydrophobicity, antioxidant ability of WPHs improved significantly. Then rat pheochromocytoma line 12 (PC12) cells oxidative model was built to evaluate the suppression of oxidative stress of three components on PC12 cells induced by H2O2. Morphological alterations, cell viability, apoptosis rate, and intracellular antioxidase system tests all indicated that WPHs exert significant protection on PC cells against H2O2-induced damage. Among them, M60 had the highest protective effect by increasing 19·3% cell survival and reducing 28·6% cell apoptosis. These results suggested hydrophobicity of WPHs was contributing to the antioxidant ability and the protective effect against oxidative damage.
Clownfish and their associated sea anemones are icons of tropical and
subtropical coastal ecosystems, but bleaching and collecting for the
aquarium trade has reduced their population densities in several
Indo-Pacific locations. We surveyed four Entacmaea
quadricolor populations and their associated clownfish
Amphiprion clarkii in Hong Kong. These assemblages
represented a combination of exposed and sheltered, flat bottomed and sloped
conditions. Different from tropical areas, where E.
quadricolor is usually found in sheltered shallow waters, the
four populations in Hong Kong were distributed in 4–10 m depths, being
densest on a 40 × 80 m slope of volcanic rocks (34.2–76.6% substrate cover
and 48.7–102.1 ind m−2) at an exposed site. This distribution
pattern could be explained by the high turbidities associated with river
discharge and sedimentation rates in local waters, which discourage the
establishment of E. quadricolor populations in sheltered bays; shallow
habitats might not be suitable for E. quadricolor in Hong
Kong due to strong wave actions generated by typhoons. Amphiprion
clarkii was present at low densities
(0.07–0.26 fish m−2) across the sites. Our data provide a
baseline for monitoring the changes of these conspicuous members of shallow
water communities in Hong Kong.
The sandstone composition analysis carried out on the samples from three different sections (western section, middle section and eastern section) of the Upper Jurassic Emuerhe Formation in the Mohe Basin, northeastern China, reveals that the Okhotsk orogenic belt and the Ergun massif basement are the source areas for the Emuerhe Formation. The source area of the western section and the A segment of the middle section is the Okhotsk orogenic belt. The tectonic attributes of the Okhotsk orogenic belt are those of a dissected arc. The transportation distance of clastic rocks from these sections gradually lengthened, and the uplift rate of the Okhotsk orogenic belt gradually increased. The source area of the eastern section and the B segment of the middle section is the Ergun massif basement. Compared with the Okhotsk orogenic belt, the tectonic attributes and uplift rate of the Ergun massif basement are different from the former. The attributes of the Ergun massif basement are those of basement uplift. The transportation distance of clastic rocks from the eastern section and the B segment of the middle section gradually shortened, and the uplift rate of the Ergun massif basement gradually decreased. These conclusions are consistent with the characteristics of a foreland basin. Thus, we can draw the conclusion that the Mohe Basin belongs to the foreland basin.
Using the Delingha 13.7 m telescope with a 9-beam SIS superconducting receiver installed, we carried out mapping of C18O and C17O J = (1 − 0) toward molecular clouds in the central molecular zone (CMZ) and in the halo of our galaxy. From the integrated intensity ratio of C18O to C17O, the isotope ratio 18O/17O ratio can be estimated, which is considered to be one of the most useful tracers of nuclear processing and metal enrichment. Here preliminary results are presented toward Sgr A, Sgr B2, Sgr C, Sgr D, and the 1.°3 complex in the CMZ and M+5.3–0.3 in the halo.
Dietary fibre has been linked to lower levels of glycosylated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) among diabetes patients. The present study aimed to evaluate the long-term effect of dietary fibre on HbA1c levels among Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Two cross-sectional surveys were conducted in 2006 and 2011, with the second one being a repeat survey on a sub-sample from the initial one. In both surveys, an in-person interview was conducted to collect information on demographic characteristics and lifestyles following a similar protocol. Dietary intake was assessed with a validated FFQ. Anthropometric measures and biochemical assays were performed at the interview.
Communities in Pudong New Area of Shanghai, China.
Chinese patients (n 934) with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
An inverse association was observed between dietary fibre and glycaemic status indicated by HbA1c level in both surveys, although it was significant only in the first survey. Among 497 patients participating in both surveys, dietary fibre intake at the first survey was inversely associated with uncontrolled glycaemic status at the second survey, with adjusted odds ratios across the tertiles of intake being 1·00, 0·72 (95 % CI 0·43, 1·21) and 0·58 (95 % CI 0·34, 0·99; Ptrend = 0·048). The change in fibre intake was slightly associated with glycaemic status, with each increase in tertile scores of intake linked to a 0·138 % (β = −0·138; 95 % CI −0·002, 0·278) decrease in HbA1c value and a 19 % (OR = 0·81; 95 % CI 0·65, 1·02) reduced risk of uncontrolled glycaemic status at the second survey.
Dietary fibre may have a long-term beneficial effect on HbA1c level among Chinese diabetes patients.
Fast linear transformer driver (FLTD) has some advantages in repetitive operation compared with traditional pulsed power generators. However, different types of gas switches applied in the field of pulsed power technology in recent years cannot reach the requirements of repetitive operation of FLTD. Therefore, the capability of repetitive operation of a multigap gas switch has been investigated in a circuit similar to the basic discharge loop named as brick in this paper. The switch has been triggered more than 2000 times and the distribution of delay time and switch jitter are analyzed and reported. Also, the self-breakdown voltages of the switch during different segments of the triggered breakdown experiment have been tested. The experimental results indicate that the delay time obeys the Gauss distribution and the jitter of 2000 times of discharge is about 2.3 ns.
The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the impact of a lifestyle intervention programme, combined with a daily low-glycaemic index meal replacement, on body-weight and glycaemic control in subjects with impaired glucose regulation (IGR). Subjects with IGR were randomly assigned to an intervention group (n 46) and a control group (n 42). Both groups received health counselling at baseline. The intervention group also received a daily meal replacement and intensive lifestyle intervention to promote healthy eating habits during the first 3 months of the study, and follow-up visits performed monthly until the end of the 1-year study. Outcome measurements included changes in plasma glucose, glycated Hb (HbA1c), plasma lipids, body weight, blood pressure and body composition (such as body fat mass and visceral fat area). The results showed that body-weight loss after 1 year was significant in the intervention group compared with the control group ( − 1·8 (sem 0·35) v.− 0·6 (sem 0·40) 2·5 kg, P< 0·05). The 2 h plasma glucose concentration decreased 1·24 mmol/l in the intervention group and increased 0·85 mmol/l in the control group (P< 0·05) compared with their baseline, respectively. A 5 kg body-weight loss at 1 year was associated with a decrease of 1·49 mmol/l in 2 h plasma glucose (P< 0·01). The incidence of normal glucose regulation (NGR) in the two groups was significantly different (P= 0·001). In conclusion, the combination of regular contact, lifestyle advice and meal replacement is beneficial in promoting IGR to NGR.
In Western countries, a history of major depression (MD) is associated with reports of received parenting that is low in warmth and caring and high in control and authoritarianism. Does a similar pattern exist in women in China?
Received parenting was assessed by a shortened version of the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI) in two groups of Han Chinese women: 1970 clinically ascertained cases with recurrent MD and 2597 matched controls. MD was assessed at personal interview.
Factor analysis of the PBI revealed three factors for both mothers and fathers: warmth, protectiveness, and authoritarianism. Lower warmth and protectiveness and higher authoritarianism from both mother and father were significantly associated with risk for recurrent MD. Parental warmth was positively correlated with parental protectiveness and negatively correlated with parental authoritarianism. When examined together, paternal warmth was more strongly associated with lowered risk for MD than maternal warmth. Furthermore, paternal protectiveness was negatively and maternal protectiveness positively associated with risk for MD.
Although the structure of received parenting is very similar in China and Western countries, the association with MD is not. High parental protectiveness is generally pathogenic in Western countries but protective in China, especially when received from the father. Our results suggest that cultural factors impact on patterns of parenting and their association with MD.
The objective of the present study was to investigate age-related differences in erythrocyte membrane fluidity (EMF) and changes in antioxidant capacity following supplementation. A total of seventy-four children were randomly divided into two groups: group A1 was the placebo-controlled group and group A2 was supplemented daily with 600 μg retinol, 1·0 mg β-carotene, 100 mg tocopherol, 300 mg ascorbic acid and 200 μg Se. A total of ninety young people were randomly divided into B1 and B2 groups, and ninety-one elderly subjects were divided into C1 and C2 groups. Groups B1 and C1 were placebo-controlled groups, and groups B2 and C2 were daily supplemented with 900 μg retinol, 1·5 mg β-carotene, 200 mg tocopherol, 500 mg ascorbic acid and 400 μg Se. Results showed that plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) was 5·35 μmol/l in children, which was lower than in young and elderly people. The MDA levels of the young and elderly individuals in the treated groups were significantly lower compared with the control groups, but the supplementation did not alter MDA levels in children. At baseline, there was a lower value of polarisation (ρ) and microviscosity (η) in children, indicating a higher EMF, than in both the young and elderly subjects. After the 2-month trial, the ρ and η values of young and elderly subjects in the treated groups decreased significantly in comparison with the placebo groups, indicating an increase in EMF. In conclusion, there was a background of higher MDA levels and lower EMF in young and elderly people than in children, which could be improved by antioxidant supplementation.
Because of its significant potential in controlling key steps of apatite mineralization, recombinant amelogenin has been applied in different in vitro systems for the synthesis of uniquely ordered composite material similar to enamel. Here we summarize the results of a series of experiments, in which mineral deposition took place on the exposed surface of enamel from extracted human third molars soaked in calcium phosphate solution, in the presence of amelogenin and fluoride. Analysis of crystal size and morphology revealed that in the presence of both amelogenin (50-100 μg/mL) and fluoride (1 ppm), bundles of oriented rod- like fluoridated apatite crystals were formed creating a dense coating on the enamel substrate. Such organized bundles were not formed at low concentrations of rP172 (< 30 μg/mL). Preparation of such ordered nanocomposites provides a promising approach for development of new generation of dental restorative materials with improved esthetic and mechanical properties.
The accumulation of seed mass in soybean is affected by both genotype and environment. The aim of the present study was to measure additive, epistatic and quantitative trait locus (QTL)×environment (QE) interaction effects of QTLs on the development of 100-seed weight in a population of 143 F5 derived recombinant inbred lines (RILs) developed from the cross between the soybean cultivars ‘Charleston’ and ‘Dong Nong 594’. Broad-sense heritability of 100-seed weight from 30 days (30D) to 80D stages was 0·58, 0·52, 0·62, 0·60, 0·66 and 0·57, respectively. A total of 17 QTLs with conditional additive (a) effect and/or conditional additive×environment interaction (ae) effect at specific stages were identified in ten linkage groups by conditional mapping. Of them, only 4 QTLs had significant a effect or ae effect at different stages of seed development. Among QTLs with significant a effect, five acted positively and six acted negatively on seed development. A total of 35 epistatic pairwise QTLs of 100-seed weight were identified by conditional mapping at different developmental stages. Five pairs of QTL showed the additive×additive epistatic (aa) effect and 16 QTLs showed the aa×environment interaction (aae) effect at the different developmental stages. QTLs with aa effect as well with their environmental interaction effect appeared to vary at different developmental stages. Overall, the results indicated that 100-seed weight in soybean is under developmental, genetic and environmental control.
The gene ap36 encoding a protein elicitor from Alternaria sp. was fused downstream of the slh (S-layer homology) motif of Bacillus thuringiensis S-layer protein gene ctc. The recombinant gene was then transferred into B. thuringiensis plasmid-free derivative strain BMB171. Sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) showed that the SLH–Ap36 fusion protein was expressed in B. thuringiensis BMB171. After tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum) leaves were treated for 90 min with the recombinant strain cultured at 28°C for 24 h, the activity of peroxidase and the amount of proline of tomato leaves were increased to 57.14% and 131.59%, respectively, compared to the control, and after the tomato leaves were treated with the cultured recombinant strain for 4 days, the activity of phenylalanine ammonia lyase was also higher than that in the control. Furthermore, tubers of treated potato (Solanum tuberosum) plants showed higher resistance to rot disease caused by Erwinia corotovora SCG1 compared to the control treatments.
Ronnie Vernooy, Senior Programme Specialist, International Development Research Centre (IDRC), Canada,Li Xiaoyun, Senior Programme Specialist, International Development Research Centre (IDRC), Canada,Xu Xiuli, Senior Programme Specialist, International Development Research Centre (IDRC), Canada,Lu Min, Senior Programme Specialist, International Development Research Centre (IDRC), Canada,Qi Gubo, Senior Programme Specialist, International Development Research Centre (IDRC), Canada