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Whereas genetic susceptibility increases the risk for major depressive disorder (MDD), non-genetic protective factors may mitigate this risk. In a large-scale prospective study of US Army soldiers, we examined whether trait resilience and/or unit cohesion could protect against the onset of MDD following combat deployment, even in soldiers at high polygenic risk.
Data were analyzed from 3079 soldiers of European ancestry assessed before and after their deployment to Afghanistan. Incident MDD was defined as no MDD episode at pre-deployment, followed by a MDD episode following deployment. Polygenic risk scores were constructed from a large-scale genome-wide association study of major depression. We first examined the main effects of the MDD PRS and each protective factor on incident MDD. We then tested the effects of each protective factor on incident MDD across strata of polygenic risk.
Polygenic risk showed a dose–response relationship to depression, such that soldiers at high polygenic risk had greatest odds for incident MDD. Both unit cohesion and trait resilience were prospectively associated with reduced risk for incident MDD. Notably, the protective effect of unit cohesion persisted even in soldiers at highest polygenic risk.
Polygenic risk was associated with new-onset MDD in deployed soldiers. However, unit cohesion – an index of perceived support and morale – was protective against incident MDD even among those at highest genetic risk, and may represent a potent target for promoting resilience in vulnerable soldiers. Findings illustrate the value of combining genomic and environmental data in a prospective design to identify robust protective factors for mental health.
To verify the validity of a semiautomated surgical site infection (SSI) surveillance system using electronic screening algorithms in 38 categories of surgery.
A cohort study for validation of semiautomated SSI surveillance system using screening algorithms.
A 1,989-bed tertiary-care referral center in Seoul, Republic of Korea.
A dataset of 40,516 surgical procedures in 38 categories stored in the conventional SSI surveillance registry at the Samsung Medical Center between January 2013 and December 2014 was used as the reference standard. In the semiautomated surveillance system, electronic screening algorithms flagged cases meeting at least 1 of 3 criteria: antibiotic prescription, microbial culture, and infectious disease consultation. Flagged cases were audited by infection preventionists. Analyses of sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value (PPV) were conducted for the semiautomated surveillance system, and its effect on reducing the workload for chart review was evaluated.
A total of 575 SSI events (1·42%) were identified by conventional SSI surveillance. The sensitivity of the semiautomated SSI surveillance was 96·7%, and the PPV of the screening algorithms alone was 4·1%. Semiautomated SSI surveillance reduced the chart review workload of the infection preventionists from 1,283 to 482 person hours per year (a 62·4% decrease).
Compared to conventional surveillance, semiautomated surveillance using electronic screening algorithms followed by chart review of selected cases can provide high-validity surveillance results and can significantly reduce the workload of infection preventionists.
Personality may predispose family caregivers to experience caregiving differently in similar situations and influence the outcomes of caregiving. A limited body of research has examined the role of some personality traits for health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among family caregivers of persons with dementia (PWD) in relation to burden and depression.
Data from a large clinic-based national study in South Korea, the Caregivers of Alzheimer's Disease Research (CARE), were analyzed (N = 476). Path analysis was performed to explore the association between family caregivers’ personality traits and HRQoL. With depression and burden as mediating factors, direct and indirect associations between five personality traits and HRQoL of family caregivers were examined.
Results demonstrated the mediating role of caregiver burden and depression in linking two personality traits (neuroticism and extraversion) and HRQoL. Neuroticism and extraversion directly and indirectly influenced the mental HRQoL of caregivers. Neuroticism and extraversion only indirectly influenced their physical HRQoL. Neuroticism increased the caregiver's depression, whereas extraversion decreased it. Neuroticism only was mediated by burden to influence depression and mental and physical HRQoL.
Personality traits can influence caregiving outcomes and be viewed as an individual resource of the caregiver. A family caregiver's personality characteristics need to be assessed for tailoring support programs to get the optimal benefits from caregiver interventions.
Microindentation is performed on hot isostatic pressed (HIP) Mg-Al (AM40) alloy
samples produced by high-pressure die cast (HPDC) process for the purpose of
quantifying the mechanical properties of the α-Mg grains. The process
of obtaining elastic modulus and hardness from indentation load-depth curves is
well established in the literature. A new inverse method is developed to extract
plastic properties in this study. The method utilizes empirical yield
strength-hardness relationship reported in the literature together with finite
element modeling of the individual indentation. Due to the shallow depth of the
indentation, indentation size effect (ISE) is taken into account when
determining plastic properties. The stress versus strain behavior is determined
for a series of indents. The resulting average values and standard deviations
are obtained for future use as input distributions for microstructure-based
property prediction of AM40.
During the past decade, carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) has emerged and spread across the world.1 The major carbapenemase enzymes currently being reported are KPC, NDM-1, VIM, IMP, and OXA.2 Because carbapenemase can be effectively transmitted via mobile genetic elements, and current therapeutic options for CPE infections are extremely limited, CPE may be one of the most serious contemporary threats to public health. However, very little is known about the characteristics of CPE carriage during hospitalization. The aims of this study were to investigate the clearance rate of CPE carriage and determine the number of consecutive negative cultures required to confirm CPE clearance. We also examined CPE transmission among hospitalized patients.
Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 2015;36(11):1361–1362
The band gap energy of the TiO2 photocatalytic is high at 3.2 eV. Ultraviolet (UV) light irradiation (<388nm) is required for the photocatalytic application. The lowering the band gap energy of TiO2 and enlarging light absorbing area are effective ways to enhance the efficiency of photocatalytic activity. Furthermore, the morphology and crystal structure of nanosized TiO2 considerably influences its photocatalytic behavior.
In this study, sodium titanate nanorods were formed using an alkali-treatment and were heat treated at different temperatures. The photoelectrochemical properties of sodium titanate nanorods was measured as a function of heat treatment temperature. The nanorods were prepared on the surface of Ti disk with a diameter of 15mm and a thickness of 3mm. Ti disk was immersed in 5 M NaOH aqueous solution at a temperature of 60 °C for 24 h. Morphology of sodium titanate nanorods was observed using FE-SEM. Crystal structure of sodium titanate nanorods was analyzed using X-ray diffractometer. Photoluminescence (PL) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was used to evaluate photoelectrochemical properties of sodium titanate nanorods. The thin amorphous sodium titanate layer was formed during alkali-treatment. The sodium titanate layer was changed to nanorods after heat treatment at a temperature of 700 °C. The thickness and length of sodium titanate nanorods obtained at 700 °C were around 100 nm and 1μm, respectively. The crystal structure of sodium titanate was identified with Na2Ti6O13. Above 900 °C, the morphology of nanorods changed to agglomerated shape and the thickness of nanorods increased to 1 μm. The lowest value of PL was obtained at a temperature of 700 °C, while nonalkali treated specimen showed the highest value of PL. EIS revealed that polarization resistance at interface between sodium titanate nanorods and electrolyte was increased with increasing heat treatment temperature.
Shape from focus (SFF) is a passive optical technique that reconstructs object shape from a sequence of image taken at different focus levels. In SFF techniques, computing focus measurement for each pixel in the image sequence, through a focus measure operator, is the fundamental step. Commonly used focus measure operators compute focus quality in Cartesian space and suffer from erroneous focus quality and lack in robustness. Thus, they provide erroneous depth maps. In this paper, we introduce a new focus measure operator that computes focus quality in log-polar transform (LPT) Properties of LPT, such as biological inspiration, data selection, and edge invariance, enable computation of better focus quality in the presence of noise. Moreover, instead of using a fixed patch of the image, we suggest the use of an adaptive window. The focus quality is assessed by computing variation in LPT. The effectiveness of the proposed technique is evaluated by conducting experiments using image sequences of different simulated and real objects. The comparative analysis shows that the proposed method is robust and effective in the presence of various types of noise.
In this study, we examine the impact of portfolio configuration on corporate performance in a technological vertical downstream alliance portfolio. First, we explore whether differences in characteristics such as innovativeness, reputation, and bargaining power between a focal firm and its partners affect corporate performance. Second, considering these differences between a focal firm and its partners, we analyze whether an alliance portfolio structure spanning structural holes or a densely embedded network is preferable. We examine 44 leading Korean defense firms over the period 1995–2010 using the two-step generalized method of moments. Our principal arguments emphasize that differences between a focal firm and its partners (in terms of innovativeness, reputation, and bargaining power) affect corporate performance differently. This concept contrasts that of previous studies, which argued that allying with dominant partners is generally better. The arguments also emphasize that the alliance portfolio structure should differ depending on the differences in terms of the three capabilities between a focal firm and its corporate partners.
Liposomal drug delivery products have been already commercialized in tumor therapeutics, which can realize passive tumor targeting via enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect resulting from the leaky tumor vasculature. To control drug release out of the liposomes, thermo-sensitive liposomes (TSLs) have been developed so that an abrupt exposure of highly concentrated drugs to tumor tissues was enabled by locally treated thermal stimuli. As interests upon TSL have increased along with ongoing clinical trials, some types of TSLs with different physical properties in pharmacokinetics and the mechanism of drug release have been formulated. However, there are few protocols established with a desirable heat source to maximize the efficacy of different TSLs as treating tumors. In this study, we examined different protocols for the most effective application of different TSLs to tumor therapy. First, we examined if enhancing the accumulation of TSLs within tumor tissues prior to bursting drugs out of TSLs could lead to increasing anti-tumor efficacy. Second, we compared the efficiency of two different heat sources on the use of TSL, a warm water bath (42°C) and high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU). Our study suggests that the specified protocol be setup for TSLs with different physical properties to optimally function in tumor therapies.
Carbon nanofibers (CNFs) have been thoroughly investigated as potential anode materials in Li-ion battery owing to their exceptional properties such as the higher surface area to mass ratio, electrical conductivity and mechanical toughness. However, one of the major limitations of nano carbon materials is lower mass loading density. To address this issue, we have developed a novel anode system composed of CNFs directly grown on 3D Cu mesh current collector (hereafter mentioned as 3D CNFs) using a thermal catalytic chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. Compared to CNF-based anodes on 2D Cu current collector, active The active material loading amount of the 3D CNFs has been found to be 400 % higher while comparing with 2D CNF. Owing to an increase of the active surface area, 3D CNFs demonstrated enhanced electrochemical performance of Li-ion battery in terms of charge capacity (50% improvement), rate capability and cycling life. Interfacial contact between the CNFs and Cu could play a crucial role in promoting the electrochemical properties. The intermediate TiC thin layer, formed at high temperature 750°C, could function as an efficient electric conducting pathway and a strong bonding bridge between the CNFs and Cu. In order to improve the pristine 3D CNF redox reactions, the amorphous Si (a-Si)/3D CNF has been sputter deposited to produce Si wrapped 3D CNF hybrid anode material. It has been found that the electrochemical properties of the a-Si/3D CNF yields superior specific capacity (Cdis 549 mAhg-1, LiC4.1) and cycling stability than that of pristine 3D CNF (461 mAhg-1, LiC4.8).
Record-brightness infrared LEDs based on colloidal quantum-dots have been achieved through control of the spacing between adjacent quantum-dots. By tuning the size of quantum-dots, the emission wavelengths can be tuned between 900nm and 1650nm.
Background: Highly educated participants with normal cognition show lower incidence of Alzheimer's disease (AD) than poorly educated participants, whereas longitudinal studies involving AD have reported that higher education is associated with more rapid cognitive decline. We aimed to evaluate whether highly educated amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) participants show more rapid cognitive decline than those with lower levels of education.
Methods: A total of 249 aMCI patients enrolled from 31 memory clinics using the standard assessment and diagnostic processes were followed with neuropsychological evaluation (duration 17.2 ± 8.8 months). According to baseline performances on memory tests, participants were divided into early-stage aMCI (−1.5 to −1.0 standard deviation (SD)) and late-stage aMCI (below −1.5 SD) groups. Risk of AD conversion and changes in neuropsychological performances according to the level of education were evaluated.
Results: Sixty-two patients converted to AD over a mean follow-up of 1.43 years. The risk of AD conversion was higher in late-stage aMCI than early-stage aMCI. Cox proportional hazard models showed that aMCI participants, and late-stage aMCI participants in particular, with higher levels of education had a higher risk of AD conversion than those with lower levels of education. Late-stage aMCI participants with higher education showed faster cognitive decline in language, memory, and Clinical Dementia Rating Sum of Boxes (CDR-SOB) scores. On the contrary, early-stage aMCI participants with higher education showed slower cognitive decline in MMSE and CDR-SOB scores.
Conclusions: Our findings suggest that the protective effects of education against cognitive decline remain in early-stage aMCI and disappear in late-stage aMCI.
To compare the characteristics and risk factors for surgical site infections (SSIs) after total hip arthroplasty (THA) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in a nationwide survey, using shared case detection and recording systems.
Retrospective cohort study.
Twenty-six hospitals participating in the Korean Nosocomial Infections Surveillance System (KONIS).
From 2006 to 2009, all patients undergoing THA and TKA in KONIS were enrolled.
SSI occurred in 161 (2.35%) of 6,848 cases (3,422 THAs and 3,426 TKAs). Pooled mean SSI rates were 1.69% and 2.82% for THA and TKA, respectively. Of the cases we examined, 42 (26%) were superficial-incisional SSIs and 119 (74%) were “severe” SSIs; of the latter, 24 (15%) were deep-incisional SSIs and 95 (59%) were organ/space SSIs. In multivariate analysis, a duration of preoperative hospital stay of greater than 3 days was a risk factor for total SSI after both THA and TKA. Diabetes mellitus, revision surgery, prolonged duration of surgery (above the 75th percentile), and the need for surgery due to trauma were independent risk factors for total and severe SSI after THA, while male sex and an operating room without artificial ventilation were independent risk factors for total and severe SSI after TKA. A large volume of surgeries (more than 10 procedures per month) protected against total and severe SSI, but only in patients who underwent TKA.
Risk factors for SSI after arthroplasty differ according to the site of the arthroplasty. Therefore, clinicians should take into account the site of arthroplasty in the analysis of SSI and the development of strategies for reducing SSI.
Nitrogen (N) and boron (B) codoped diamond-like carbon (DLC) films were prepared on silicon oxide substrates by RF magnetron sputtering to optimize the electrical conductivity and hardness of DLC film. The electrical conductivity and hardness of the N–B codoped DLC films were controlled simultaneously by varying N2 flow rate with fixed B target power and varying B target power with fixed N2flow rate. The electrical resistivity of the B-doped DLC films showed a cup-shaped relationship with B target power and a U-shaped relationship with the N–B codoped DLC film. However, hardness of the B-doped DLC films showed a decreasing behavior but it was maintained almost constant for the N–B codoped DLC film. These particular electrical and hardness behaviors of the N–B codoped DLC films could be explained by a neutralization effect of N and B codoping.