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The very high temperature reactor (VHTR) is a development of the high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs) and one of the six proposed Generation IV reactor concept candidates. The 10 MW high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTR-10) is the first pebble-bed gas-cooled test reactor in China. A sampling system for the measurement of carbon-14 (14C) was established in the helium purification system of the HTR-10 primary loop, which could sample 14C from the coolant at three locations. The results showed that activity concentration of 14C in the HTR-10 primary coolant was 1.2(1) × 102 Bq/m3 (STP). The production mechanisms, distribution characteristics, reduction routes, and release types of 14C in HTR-10 were analyzed and discussed. A theoretical model was built to calculate the amount of 14C in the core of HTR-10 and its concentration in the primary coolant. The activation reaction of 13C has been identified to be the dominant 14C source in the core, whereas in the primary coolant, it is the activation of 14N. These results can supplement important information for the source term analysis of 14C in HTR-10 and promote the study of 14C in HTGRs.
The aim of this study was to investigate the in vivo degradation mechanism and the mechanical properties of poly(lactide-co-glycolide)/beta-tricalcium phosphate (PLGA/β-TCP) composite anchors. Anchors composed of PLGA and β-TCP were implanted in the dorsal subcutaneous tissue of beagle dogs for 6, 12, 16, and 26 weeks. The degradation of the materials was evaluated by measuring the changes in thermal behavior, crystallinity, and mechanical properties. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to observe the surface and longitudinal section of the material. The evaluation of mechanical strength retention and degradation properties suggest that the addition of β-TCP particles efficiently enhances their mechanical properties and thermal characteristics and delays their degradation rate. By analyzing the results of SEM, X-ray diffraction, and differential scanning calorimetry, we can infer that after 12 weeks, the connection between β-TCP and PLGA becomes less compact, which accelerates the decline of mechanical strength.
Congenital heart disease (CHD) is one of the most common birth defects. More than 200 susceptibility loci have been identified for CHDs, yet a large part of the genetic risk factors remain unexplained. Monozygotic (MZ) twins are thought to be completely genetically identical; however, discordant phenotypes have been found in MZ twins. Recent studies have demonstrated genetic differences between MZ twins. We aimed to test whether copy number variants (CNVs) and/or genetic mutation differences play a role in the etiology of CHDs by using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping arrays and whole exome sequencing of twin pairs discordant for CHDs. Our goal was to identify mutations present only in the affected twins, which could identify novel candidates for CHD susceptibility loci. We present a comprehensive analysis for the CNVs and genetic mutation results of the selected individuals but detected no consistent differences within the twin pairs. Our study confirms that chromosomal structure or genetic mutation differences do not seem to play a role in the MZ twins discordant for CHD.
This volume examines the role of objects in the region north of early dynastic state centers, at the intersection of Ancient China and Eurasia, a large area that stretches from Xinjiang to the China Sea, from c.3000 BCE to the mid-eighth century BCE. This area was a frontier, an ambiguous space that lay at the margins of direct political control by the metropolitan states, where local and colonial ideas and practices were reconstructed transculturally. These identities were often merged and displayed in material culture. Types of objects, styles, and iconography were often hybrids or new to the region, as were the tomb assemblages in which they were deposited and found. Patrons commissioned objects that marked a symbolic vision of place and person and that could mobilize support, legitimize rule, and bind people together. Through close examination of key artifacts, this book untangles the considerable changes in political structure and cultural makeup of ancient Chinese states and their northern neighbors.
To determine the spray forming process parameters of 7075/Al–Si bimetallic gradient composite plate with two gas atomizers, a calculation model of the plate has been established by using the finite element software ANSYS. The effects of different motion trajectory, advance speed, swing cycle and spray center distance on shape, and silicon distribution of deposited plate have been simulated by the APDL programming language. The results show that a smooth and uniform surface is obtained when motion trajectory is in a regular jaggies mode. The deposited plate varies from platform to stepped shape with a center distance increasing from 20 mm to 50 mm; meanwhile, the width of the transition zone decreases gradually. As the period increases to 8 s, the silicon distribution of each layer presents a jagged fluctuation. Both the thickness of the deposited plate and the width of the transition zone decrease as the advance speed increases, except the silicon distribution. Finally, the modeling and simulation of the co-spray formed 7075/Al–Si bimetallic gradient composite plate are validated by experimental investigations and the simulation results are in good agreement with the actual results.
The Al–50Si alloy, as a kind of potential electronic packaging material, is manufactured by different methods, such as casting and spray deposition. The possible influences of the P refiner on the microstructure of the Al–50Si alloy are investigated at different cooling rates. The refinement mechanism of primary Si phase is discussed in view of the P refiner addition, and the variation of the cooling rates. The thermal conductivity (TC), as a key parameter for electronic materials, is measured. The coupled effects of the cooling rate and the addition of the P refiner during the solidification of the Al–50Si alloy on the TC are elucidated based on structural observations. Furthermore, the porosity in the Al–50Si alloy is treated as a second phase influencing the TC.
An outbreak of acute hepatitis recently occurred in a nursing home in Zhejiang Province, China. The objectives of this study were to confirm the outbreak and identify the aetiology, source and transmission patterns. All residents and staff in or near the nursing home during the period from 1 October 2014 to 21 May 2015 were investigated regarding hygiene and for epidemiological information including water and food (eating meat especially pork products). Serum and stool specimens were collected for detection of hepatitis E virus (HEV) antibodies using ELISA and RNA using RT–PCR. Samples that were RNA positive were genotyped. Of 185 senior residents and 24 staff in the nursing home, there were 37 laboratory-confirmed cases during the outbreak. Of these cases, 12 patients (three deaths) were symptomatic with jaundice, a common clinical symptom for hepatitis E infection. HEV strains were isolated from three cases and they formed a single cluster within genotype 4d. A case-control study was conducted to investigate potential risk factors for the outbreak and the results revealed that cases more often washed their dishes and rinsed their mouths using tap water than the controls (P < 0·05). Based on hygiene investigation and meteorological information, it is likely that HEV-infected sewage and faeces contaminated the water network on rainy days. Collectively, these results suggest that the outbreak of HEV genotype 4 infection was most likely caused by contaminated tap water rather than food.
An Al–10.83Zn–3.39Mg–1.22Cu–0.16Zr–0.16Sc alloy was produced using the spray deposition technology. The microstructure evolution within temperature ranging between 613 K and 733 K during hot pressing process at different initial strain rate was investigated in a transmission electron microscope (TEM). Partial resolution of the primary precipitates in the deposited microstructure, such as η-MgZn2 and Al3(ScZr), took place. Moreover, new secondary η-MgZn2 and Al3(ScZr) precipitated from the super saturated solid solution and their effects on the recrystallization were also analyzed. The Al3(ScZr) and η-MgZn2 precipitation can act as barriers for the movement of both dislocations and grain boundaries, which are the main factors for hindering the recrystallization. Additionally, the dislocation slide during hot deformation was also investigated in detail. The spray deposition Al–Zn–Mg–Cu alloy own the well deformability, and the typical perfect dislocations can be found in the hot deformation Al–Zn–Mg–Cu alloy.
Phenol, also known as carbolic acid or phenic acid, is a priority pollutant in aquatic ecosystems. The present study has investigated metabolic activities and transcription profiles of cytochrome P450 enzymes in Chironomus kiinensis under phenol stress. Exposure of C. kiinensis larvae to three sublethal doses of phenol (1, 10 and 100 µM) inhibited cytochrome P450 enzyme activity during the 96 h exposure period. The P450 activity measured after the 24 h exposure to phenol stress could be used to assess the level (low or high) of phenol contamination in the environment. To investigate the potential of cytochrome P450 genes as molecular biomarkers to monitor phenol contamination, the cDNA of ten CYP6 genes from the transcriptome of C. kiinensis were identified and sequenced. The open reading frames of the CYP6 genes ranged from 1266 to 1587 bp, encoding deduced polypeptides composed of between 421 and 528 amino acids, with predicted molecular masses from 49.01 to 61.94 kDa and isoelectric points (PI) from 6.01 to 8.89. Among the CYP6 genes, the mRNA expression levels of the CYP6EW3, CYP6EV9, CYP6FV1 and CYP6FV2 genes significantly altered in response to phenol exposure; therefore, these genes could potentially serve as biomarkers in the environment. This study shows that P450 activity combined with one or multiple CYP6 genes could be used to monitor phenol pollution.