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This study is aimed to evaluate the validity and reliability of the Cancer Stigma Scale for the Turkish population (CASS-T).
The sample of the study consisted of 412 students of a foundation university located in Ankara, Turkey. The reliability of the CASS was evaluated using the Cronbach alpha reliability coefficient and item-total score correlations. Exploratory factor analyses were applied to examine the factor structure of the scale and its construct validity. To test the time invariance of the scale, the relationships between the scores obtained from the first and second applications were examined using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC).
The Cronbach's alpha coefficient of CASS-T was 0.83. In the factor analysis, it was confirmed that the scale has a six-dimensional structure in parallel to original version, namely Avoidance, Severity, Responsibility, Policy opposition, Awkwardness, and Discrimination. The ICC values all remained in the range that indicates the reliability of the 0.63–0.71 to be substantial. The contribution of the six factors of the CASS-T scale to the variance is 57.8.
Significance in results
The Turkish version of the CASS was confirmed to have good reliability and validity for evaluating stigma toward cancer in Turkish society.
The aim of this study was to investigate the validity and reliability of the Patient Dignity Inventory (PDI) in the Turkish society, which was developed to evaluate dignity-related distress in palliative care patients.
One hundred and twenty-seven adults with advanced cancer hospitalized in several clinics of two university hospitals were included in the study. The patients whose Palliative Performance Scale score was at least 40% were recruited to study. The data were collected with a patient demographic form, the Turkish version of Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS-TR), and the Turkish version of the PDI (PDI-TR). The PDI-TR was finalized and back-translated after translating into Turkish and obtaining 10 expert opinions. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, internal consistency, concurrent validity, and test–retest reliability analysis were performed.
The Cronbach's α coefficient of PDI-TR was 0.94. Factor analysis resulted in a five-factor solution, and all items were loaded on factors. Factors were labeled as symptom distress, existential distress, self-confidence, dependency, and supportive care needs and accounted for 68.70% of the overall variance. The model's normed fit index, comparative fit index, and X2/SD were found between acceptable range (0.90, 0.93, and 2.64, respectively). A positive and strong correlation was found between subdimension scores of HADS-TR and the total score of PDI-TR (r = 0.70 for anxiety subdimension; r = 0.73 for depression subdimension). The test–retest reliability was conducted with 32 patients within the sample two weeks after the first application, and no significant difference was found between the two application scores as the result of paired-sample t-test (p > 0.05). An intraclass correlation coefficient of test–retest reliability was r = 0.855.
Significance of results
PDI-TR was found to be a valid and reliable tool in palliative care patients in Turkish society.
When patients feel spiritually supported by staff, we find increased use of hospice and reduced use of aggressive treatments at end of life, yet substantial barriers to staff spiritual care provision still exist. We aimed to study these barriers in a new cultural context and analyzed a new subgroup with “unrealized potential” for improved spiritual care provision: those who are positively inclined toward spiritual care yet do not themselves provide it.
We distributed the Religion and Spirituality in Cancer Care Study via the Middle East Cancer Consortium to physicians and nurses caring for advanced cancer patients. Survey items included how often spiritual care should be provided, how often respondents themselves provide it, and perceived barriers to spiritual care provision.
We had 770 respondents (40% physicians, 60% nurses) from 14 Middle Eastern countries. The results showed that 82% of respondents think staff should provide spiritual care at least occasionally, but 44% provide spiritual care less often than they think they should. In multivariable analysis of respondents who valued spiritual care yet did not themselves provide it to their most recent patients, predictors included low personal sense of being spiritual (p < 0.001) and not having received training (p = 0.02; only 22% received training). How “developed” a country is negatively predicted spiritual care provision (p < 0.001). Self-perceived barriers were quite similar across cultures.
Significance of results
Despite relatively high levels of spiritual care provision, we see a gap between desirability and actual provision. Seeing oneself as not spiritual or only slightly spiritual is a key factor demonstrably associated with not providing spiritual care. Efforts to increase spiritual care provision should target those in favor of spiritual care provision, promoting training that helps participants consider their own spirituality and the role that it plays in their personal and professional lives.
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