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Depressive and anxiety disorders (common mental disorders) are the most common psychiatric condition encountered in primary healthcare.
To test the effectiveness of an intervention led by lay health counsellors in primary care settings (the MANAS intervention) to improve the outcomes of people with common mental disorders.
Twenty-four primary care facilities (12 public, 12 private) in Goa (India) were randomised to provide either collaborative stepped care or enhanced usual care to adults who screened positive for common mental disorders. Participants were assessed at 2, 6 and 12 months for presence of ICD-10 common mental disorders, the severity of symptoms of depression and anxiety, suicidal behaviour and disability levels. All analyses were intention to treat and carried out separately for private and public facilities and adjusted for the design. The trial has been registered with clinicaltrials.gov (NCT00446407).
A total of 2796 participants were recruited. In public facilities, the intervention was consistently associated with strong beneficial effects over the 12 months on all outcomes. There was a 30% decrease in the prevalence of common mental disorders among those with baseline ICD-10 diagnoses (risk ratio (RR) = 0.70, 95% CI 0.53–0.92); and a similar effect among the subgroup of participants with depression (RR = 0.76, 95% CI 0.59–0.98). Suicide attempts/plans showed a 36% reduction over 12 months (RR = 0.64, 95% CI 0.42–0.98) among baseline ICD-10 cases. Strong effects were observed on days out of work and psychological morbidity, and modest effects on overall disability. In contrast, there was little evidence of impact of the intervention on any outcome among participants attending private facilities.
Trained lay counsellors working within a collaborative-care model can reduce prevalence of common mental disorders, suicidal behaviour, psychological morbidity and disability days among those attending public primary care facilities.
The determinants of common mental disorders in women have not been
described in longitudinal studies from a low-income country.
Population-based cohort study of 2494 women aged 18 to 50 years, in
India. The Revised Clinical Interview Schedule was used for the detection
of common mental disorders.
There were 39 incident cases of common mental disorder in 2166
participants eligible for analysis (12-month rate 1.8%, 95% CI 1.3–2.4%).
The following baseline factors were independently associated with the
risk for common mental disorder: poverty (low income and having
difficulty making ends meet); being married as compared with being
single; use of tobacco; experiencing abnormal vaginal discharge;
reporting a chronic physical illness; and having higher psychological
symptom scores at baseline.
Programmes to reduce the burden of common mental disorder in women should
target poorer women, women with chronic physical illness and who have
gynaecological symptoms, and women who use tobacco.
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