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Assessment of frontal lobe impairment in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a matter of great importance, since it often causes ALS patients to decrease medication and nursing compliance, thus shortening their survival time.
The frontal assessment battery (FAB) is a short and rapid method for assessing frontal executive functions. We investigated the applicability of the FAB as a screening method for assessing cognitive impairments in 61 ALS patients. Depending on the results of the FAB, we classified patients into two subgroups: FAB-normal and FAB-abnormal. We then performed additional evaluations of cognitive function using the Korean version of the mini-mental state examination (K-MMSE), a verbal fluency test (COWAT), and a neuropsychiatric inventory (NPI). Results of these tests were compared between the two groups using Mann-Whitney U-tests, and Spearman correlation analyses were used to investigate the relationships between FAB score and disease duration and severity.
Of the 61 sporadic ALS patients included in this study, 14 were classified as FAB-abnormal and 47 were classified as FAB-normal. The FAB-normal and FAB-abnormal patients performed significantly differently in all domains of the COWAT. There was no difference in behavioral disturbance, as assessed by the NPI, between the two groups. The FAB scores were found to significantly correlate with both disease duration and severity.
The FAB shows promise as a method of screening for frontal lobe dysfunction in ALS, as it is not only quick and easy, but also reliable. Additional studies should examine how FAB performance changes as ALS progresses.
Electrical conduction of metal nanoclusters by percolation is a very interesting area in nano-device. For more functional nano-sensors consisting of multiple nanocluster blending film, various metals, such as Cu and Ni nanocluster films were fabricated using inert-gas condensation method. The percolation threshold of the films was measured. In addition, for the operation of sensors using these nanocluster films in air, aging experiments of the percolated films in air were carried out. While the percolation threshold was in connection not with the material species but with the area coverage of nanocluster films, the conductive characteristics according to the aging temperature depended on the material species. Reversible and irreversible conduction behaviors of nanocluster films were investigated with nanoscale microstructures using electron microscopes.
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