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This study examined the effects of a variety of metallurgical factors on the electrochemical corrosion behavior of superaustenitic stainless steel welds. First, the effects of the sigma (σ)-phase on the corrosion behavior were studied by means of a three-dimensional-atom probe. Cr and Mo depletion areas formed around the σ-phases which are precipitated in the interdendritic area were clearly observed. Second, the effects of oxide inclusion on the pitting corrosion of the steel welds were analyzed. The utilization of high resolution transmission electron microscope clearly demonstrated that the thickness and Cr content of the passive film formed on the steel surface decreased significantly with decreasing distance to the oxide inclusion, resulting in a deterioration of the corrosion resistance. Third, the effects of alloying elements, Cu and Al, were evaluated using an electrochemical polarization technique. This confirmed that Cu has a detrimental effect on the resistance to localized corrosion of the steel. The addition of Al up to 0.25 wt% had no significant effects on corrosion resistance in a chloride environment despite the presence of an Al-based oxide layer (Al2O3) on the outermost surface.
A 1MV AMS was installed in KIGAM (Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources). After 4 months of installation, the AMS started normal operation from January 2008. This multi-element AMS was developed by HVEE to measure 14C, 10Be, and 26Al. The results of an acceptance test demonstrate that this machine is capable of routine 14C age dating and of measurements of other radioisotopes in terms of accuracy and precision as well as the background level. After installation, an investigation aimed at determining the stable operating conditions was conducted, and background levels were determined to be as low as 10–15 for 14C and 10–14 for 10Be and 26Al.
The Kawagodaira Volcano is located on the northwest slope of Amagi Volcano on the Izu Peninsula of central Japan. The fine pumice that erupted from Kawagodaira Volcano is widely distributed in the central and western parts of the Japanese mainland. Here, we report an accurate eruption age determined by radiocarbon wiggle-matching of a Japanese cedar timber excavated from the pyroclastic deposit at the pumice flow terminal of Kawagodaira Volcano. The 14C wiggle-match estimate for the Kawagodaira Volcano eruption is 1210–1187 cal BC (95.4% confidence level).
A series of annual tree-ring measurements has been performed in order to reconstruct the radiocarbon concentration variation in the Korean atmosphere from AD 1650 to 1850. The absolute ages of the samples were determined using dendrochronology. Alpha-cellulose extraction was applied to prepare the tree-ring samples for precise 14C measurement. The 14C concentrations of the tree rings were then plotted with the dendrochronological ages and showed that during the period AD 1650–1850, the discrepancy in 14C concentration in the Korean atmosphere from IntCal data is small enough to use IntCal data without any further correction. This is nearly one third of the average offset of the 400 yr from AD 1250 to 1650. One of the probable causes for the regional offset around Korea is the contribution of 14C-depleted CO2 released from the northern Pacific Ocean, where old deep water upwells to the surface. It is likely that the release rate of 14C-depleted CO2 decreased due to the temperature change during the Little Ice Age.
During the past decade, carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) has emerged and spread across the world.1 The major carbapenemase enzymes currently being reported are KPC, NDM-1, VIM, IMP, and OXA.2 Because carbapenemase can be effectively transmitted via mobile genetic elements, and current therapeutic options for CPE infections are extremely limited, CPE may be one of the most serious contemporary threats to public health. However, very little is known about the characteristics of CPE carriage during hospitalization. The aims of this study were to investigate the clearance rate of CPE carriage and determine the number of consecutive negative cultures required to confirm CPE clearance. We also examined CPE transmission among hospitalized patients.
Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 2015;36(11):1361–1362
We developed the Hong Kong Specific Learning Difficulties Behavior Checklist for Junior Secondary School Students (BCL-JS) for teachers to rate the frequency of 52 reading-related behavioral characteristics of Chinese secondary school students. An item factor analysis based on ratings on 947 students yielded seven distinct dimensions. In a separate sample of 90 students, the seven constructs of the BCL-JS significantly correlated with students’ performances on most literacy and reading-related cognitive measures, and differentiated adolescents with or without dyslexia. Discriminant analysis showed that the BCL-JS had a high rate of correct classification (82.2%). These findings support that the BCL-JS is a reliable screening tool for Chinese junior secondary school students at risk for dyslexia.
To compare the characteristics and risk factors for surgical site infections (SSIs) after total hip arthroplasty (THA) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in a nationwide survey, using shared case detection and recording systems.
Retrospective cohort study.
Twenty-six hospitals participating in the Korean Nosocomial Infections Surveillance System (KONIS).
From 2006 to 2009, all patients undergoing THA and TKA in KONIS were enrolled.
SSI occurred in 161 (2.35%) of 6,848 cases (3,422 THAs and 3,426 TKAs). Pooled mean SSI rates were 1.69% and 2.82% for THA and TKA, respectively. Of the cases we examined, 42 (26%) were superficial-incisional SSIs and 119 (74%) were “severe” SSIs; of the latter, 24 (15%) were deep-incisional SSIs and 95 (59%) were organ/space SSIs. In multivariate analysis, a duration of preoperative hospital stay of greater than 3 days was a risk factor for total SSI after both THA and TKA. Diabetes mellitus, revision surgery, prolonged duration of surgery (above the 75th percentile), and the need for surgery due to trauma were independent risk factors for total and severe SSI after THA, while male sex and an operating room without artificial ventilation were independent risk factors for total and severe SSI after TKA. A large volume of surgeries (more than 10 procedures per month) protected against total and severe SSI, but only in patients who underwent TKA.
Risk factors for SSI after arthroplasty differ according to the site of the arthroplasty. Therefore, clinicians should take into account the site of arthroplasty in the analysis of SSI and the development of strategies for reducing SSI.
To evaluate the risk factors for surgical site infection (SSI) after gastric surgery in patients in Korea.
A nationwide prospective multicenter study.
Twenty university-affiliated hospitals in Korea.
The Korean Nosocomial Infections Surveillance System (KONIS), a Web-based system, was developed. Patients in 20 Korean hospitals from 2007 to 2009 were prospectively monitored for SSI for up to 30 days after gastric surgery. Demographic data, hospital characteristics, and potential perioperative risk factors were collected and analyzed, using multivariate logistic regression models.
Of the 4,238 case patients monitored, 64.9% (2,752) were male, and mean age (±SD) was 58.8 (±12.3) years. The SSI rates were 2.92, 6.45, and 10.87 per 100 operations for the National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance system risk index categories of 0, 1, and 2 or 3, respectively. The majority (69.4%) of the SSIs observed were organ or space SSIs. The most frequently isolated microorganisms were Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Male sex (odds ratio [OR], 1.67 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.09–2.58]), increased operation time (1.20 [1.07–1.34] per 1-hour increase), reoperation (7.27 [3.68–14.38]), combined multiple procedures (1.79 [1.13–2.83]), prophylactic administration of the first antibiotic dose after skin incision (3.00 [1.09–8.23]), and prolonged duration (≥7 days) of surgical antibiotic prophylaxis (SAP; 2.70 [1.26–5.64]) were independently associated with increased risk of SSI.
Male sex, inappropriate SAP, and operation-related variables are independent risk factors for SSI after gastric surgery.
The influence of operating parameters in producing light-emitting porous silicon materials was investigated in ethanolic solutions of hydrofluoric acid. Photoluminescence spectra depended on applied potential, the intensity and wavelength of illumination, and electrolyte concentration. When the applied potential and the illumination wavelength increased, the photoluminescence shifted to longer wavelength. Change in HF concentration resulted in different intensity in photoluminescence.
We report a new excimer laser annealing method by employing selectively floating a-Si active layer structure in order to increase the grain size of poly-Si film. The floating a-Si region blocks the heat conduction into the underlying substrate due to high thermal-insulating property of an air so that the lateral temperature gradient is successfully induced by the proposed simple air-gap structure. Our experimental results show that large grains were grown in the lateral direction from the edge to the center of the floating active region. The large grains exceeding 4 m were successfully obtained with only one laser irradiation.
Using variable-angle spectroscopic ellipsometry, we measure the pseudo-dielectric functions of as-deposited and annealed SiO2/SiOx multilayers (MLs). The SiO2(2nm)/SiOx(2nm) MLs have been prepared under various deposition temperature by ion beam sputtering. The annealing at temperatures ≥ 1100°C leads to the formation of Si nanocrystals (nc-Si) in the SiOx layer of MLs. Transmission electron microscopy images clearly demonstrate the existence of nc-Si. We assume a Tauc-Lorentzian lineshape for the dielectric function of nc-Si, and use an effective medium approximation for SiO2/nc-Si MLs as a mixture of nc-Si and SiO2. We successfully estimate the dielectric function of nc-Si and its volume fraction. We find that the volume fraction of nc-Si decreases after annealing, with increasing x in as-deposited SiOx layer. This result is compared to expected nc-Si volume fraction, which was estimated from stoichiometry of SiOx.
We report the oxide charging effects on metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) structure caused by PH3/He ion shower doping. The parallel negative shift of flat-band voltage occurred for the ion-doped PETEOS samples even after thermal annealing. When the ion dose was higher, this shift was larger. These results show that a considerable amount of positive charges were induced inside the oxide films after PH3/He ion shower doping process. For the same ion dose, the flat-band voltage shift is larger when the thickness of PETEOS is thicker. When the ion dose was 1.5×1017cm−2 and the thickness of PETEOS was 80nm, the shift of flat-band voltage was larger than −7V. We can conclude that PH3/He ion shower doping process induces the positive charges, which result in the flat band voltage shift of MOS capacitors, in the bulk oxide films when oxide films are exposed to ion shower doping.
Assessment of frontal lobe impairment in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a matter of great importance, since it often causes ALS patients to decrease medication and nursing compliance, thus shortening their survival time.
The frontal assessment battery (FAB) is a short and rapid method for assessing frontal executive functions. We investigated the applicability of the FAB as a screening method for assessing cognitive impairments in 61 ALS patients. Depending on the results of the FAB, we classified patients into two subgroups: FAB-normal and FAB-abnormal. We then performed additional evaluations of cognitive function using the Korean version of the mini-mental state examination (K-MMSE), a verbal fluency test (COWAT), and a neuropsychiatric inventory (NPI). Results of these tests were compared between the two groups using Mann-Whitney U-tests, and Spearman correlation analyses were used to investigate the relationships between FAB score and disease duration and severity.
Of the 61 sporadic ALS patients included in this study, 14 were classified as FAB-abnormal and 47 were classified as FAB-normal. The FAB-normal and FAB-abnormal patients performed significantly differently in all domains of the COWAT. There was no difference in behavioral disturbance, as assessed by the NPI, between the two groups. The FAB scores were found to significantly correlate with both disease duration and severity.
The FAB shows promise as a method of screening for frontal lobe dysfunction in ALS, as it is not only quick and easy, but also reliable. Additional studies should examine how FAB performance changes as ALS progresses.
The fluorinated amorphous and microcrystalline silicon (a,μc-Si:H;F) films have been prepared by rf plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) with SiH 4 and SiF 4 gas mixtures. The stretching Si-O (1085 cm-1) and SiH2 (2100 cm-1) bands estimated from infrared (IR) spectroscope data have related to the evolution of crystallinity and the optical band gap was shifted by introducing Si-O bonds. The sub-band gap absorption coefficient in a,μc-Si:H;F films was about one order lower than that in hydrogenated amorphous silicon film (a-Si:H). The subband gap absorption in a-Si:H;F film was comparable to that in tic-Si:H;F films. The lightinduced degradation of a,μc-Si:H;F films were also suppressed.
The laser annealing effects on the TEOS (Tetra-Ethyl-Ortho-Silicate) oxide of MOS (AI/TEOS/n+ Silicon ) structures was investigated with different initial oxide conditions, such as breakdown field. The breakdown field increased upto the 170 mJ/cm2 with increasing laser energy density and decreased at 220 mJ/cm2. It is considered that the increase of breakdown field is originated from the restore of strains which exist mainly at the metal/oxide interface.
We propose new poly-Si TFT's with selectively doped region in the center of channel in order to reduce large leakage current. In proposed TFT's, the selectively doped region redistributes total induced electric field in the channel. For VGS<0, VDS> 0 in the n-channel proposed TFT's, most of the high electric field applies in the depletion regions which exist the drain/undoped region and undoped region/selectively doped region which faces to the source. Comparing with conventional TFT's, the electric field induced near the drain junction reduces to about 1/2, therefore, electron-hole pairs generated in drain junction are considerably reduced. Furthermore, the ON-current of proposed TFT's is the same or slightly lower than that of conventional ones. Consequently, the experimental data show the considerable improvement of the ON/OFF current ratio.
The laser annealing effects on the TEOS (Tetra-Ethyl-Ortho-Silicate) oxide of MOS (Al/TEOS/n+ Silicon ) structures was investigated with different initial oxide conditions, such as breakdown field. The breakdown field increased upto the 170 mJ/cm2 with increasing laser energy density and decreased at 220 mJ/cm2. It is considered that the increase of breakdown field is originated from the restore of strains which exist mainly at the metal/oxide interface.
The performance of poly-Si TFTs and CMOS circuits with various active films prepared by different deposition processes and annealing methods, such as SPC(Solid Phase Crystallization) and ELA(Excimer Laser Annealing), have been investigated. We have examined the effects of DC characteristics of poly-Si TFT, such as mobility, threshold voltage and ON- OFF- current level, on the dynamic performance of the CMOS circuits.
We have fabricated poly-Si TFT devices and CMOS circuits with various process conditions, such as active layer preparation source gases, annealing method, film thickness and source/drain impurity doping. The TFTs with ELA active films exhibit much higher field effect mobility and ON/OFF current ratio than those with SPC active film due to low intragranular trap state density. The TFTs with active film deposited using Si2H6 have higher mobility and sub-threshold slope than those with active film deposited using SiH4 because of the large poly-Si grain size and less grain boundary defects. We have observed that the device ON-current, mobility and VTH are the dominant characteristics to control the operation speed of CMOS circuits. We have also found that the effects of active film thickness and source/drain doping process on the performance of CMOS ring oscillator may not be neglected and that it should be optimized for AMLCD applications.
Amperometric urea sensor is more suitable than optical and potentiometric urea sensor to diagnose hyperammonemia. However, because sensitivity in low concentration decreases remarkably, despite amperometric urea sensor has been studied for a long time it has not been applied for clinical diagnosis. In this paper, a new structure for an amperometric urea sensor was fabricated by MEMS, electrochemical etching, and electrostatic covalent binding techniques. Until now most amperometric urea sensors have had a membrane fixed on top of the transducer. That method often leads to malfunction of the sensor, arising from problems such as inadequate membrane adhesion, insufficient mechanical stability, and low sensitivity. To solve these kinds of problems, urease (Urs) was immobilized by electrostatic covalent binding method on the porous silicon (PSi) substrate coated self-assembled monolayer (SAM). Electrostatic covalent binding method was used to keep anisotropic orientation of urease on SAM.