ZK60 (Mg–Zn–Zr) alloys exhibited a variation in precipitates with aging, and their mechanical properties also changed. Microindentation tests were carried out on two types of ZK60 alloys of solid solution (T4) and peak aging (T6). Microstructure and texture evolution during indentation was investigated using electron backscatter diffraction. Twinning occurred near the indentation marks in most grains. It was found that tensile twinning was dominant, and two twin variants were usually observed. Texture and microstructure evolution by twinning and slip activation was further examined by uniaxial compression test with strain. The initial random orientation gradually changed into basal fibers with strain. Some grains with nonbasal orientations aligned with the loading direction easily underwent twinning followed by slip deformation. Other grains near basal orientations revealed only slip deformation.