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Background:Clostridioides difficile and multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) pose challenges due to treatment complexities and substantial morbidity and mortality. Susceptibility to colonization with these organisms and potential onward transmission if colonized (ie, infectivity) is influenced by the human microbiome and its dynamics. Disruptive effects of antibiotics on the microbiome imply potential indirect effects of antibiotics on C. difficile colonization. Mathematical models can help explore the relative impact of key pathways linking antibiotic use to C. difficile colonization, including the relationship between population-level antibiotic use and colonization prevalence. Methods: We built a compartmental model of long-term C. difficile colonization prevalence of nursing home residents (though malleable for any MDRO), allowing interactions between the microbiome and the colonization process. Based on proportional abundance of microbial taxa, we classified individuals into high and low α diversity groups, each further stratified into uncolonized or colonized with C. difficile. The rate of transition from the high to low microbiome diversity group was proportional to the population-level rate of antibiotic use. Transmission dynamics followed a susceptible–infectious–susceptible framework with the possibility for increased susceptibility and infectivity for the low-diversity microbiome group. First, as a comparator, we used a “null model” in which microbiome diversity did not influence host susceptibility or infectivity. Next, we sampled from realistic (literature informed) parameter ranges to analyze how the microbiome mediates the effect of antibiotics on colonization in this population. Results: Our analysis suggests that antibiotic use can catalyze colonization with C. difficile through interactions with the host microbiome, resulting in a sharp increase in colonization with a modest increase in antibiotic use (Fig 1). Increasing the population-level antibiotic use by 5% led to a median 24% increase in long-term colonization prevalence in the model (Fig 2). In contrast, increasing susceptibility or infectivity rates by 5% resulted in slightly higher increases in total colonization (27% and 29%, respectively). However, there was considerable uncertainty around these estimates, with interquartile ranges of up to 20% for some parameters (Fig 2). Conclusions: Higher population-level antibiotic use likely increases colonization by C. difficile through indirect effects of the microbiome. The increased colonization burden attributable to increasing antibiotic use may be substantial. With high uncertainty around some estimates, conducting observational studies to better understand key colonization and microbiome parameters (eg, the relative increase in susceptibility or infectivity with lower microbiome diversity) is critical for future efforts to estimate the impact of antibiotic use on colonization with C. difficile and MDROs.
Background:Candida spp can cause a variety of infections known as candidiasis, ranging from severe invasive infections to superficial mucosal infections of the mouth and vagina. Fluconazole, a triazole antifungal, is commonly prescribed to treat candidiasis but increasing fluconazole resistance is a growing concern for several Candida spp. Although C. albicans has historically been the most common cause of candidiasis, other species are increasingly common and antifungal resistance is more prevalent in these non-albicans species, including C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis, and C. tropicalis, which were the focus of this analysis. Methods: We used the PINC AI healthcare data (PHD) database to examine fluconazole resistance for inpatient isolates between 2012 and 2021 from 187 US acute-care hospitals with at least 1 Candida spp culture with a fluconazole susceptibility result over the entire period. We calculated annual percentage fluconazole resistance for C. glabrata, C. tropicalis, and C. parapsilosis isolates using the clinical laboratory interpretation for resistance. Results: We identified 4,264 C. glabrata, 2,482 C. parapsilosis, and 2,283 C. tropicalis isolates between 2012 and 2021 with susceptibility results. The percentage of C. glabrata isolates resistant to fluconazole doubled between 2020 and 2021 (14.6% vs 29.3%) (Fig. 1a). The percentage of C. parapsilosis isolates resistant to fluconazole steadily increased since 2017 (Fig. 1b), with an 82% increase in 2021 compared with 2020 (3.8% in 2020 vs 6.9% in 2021). Fluconazole resistance among C. tropicalis isolates varied over the years, with a 0.3% decrease in 2021 from 2020 (Fig. 1c). Of hospitals reporting at least 1 result each year 2020–2021, 44% observed an increase in the proportion of C. glabrata isolates resistant to fluconazole in 2021 compared to 2020. Conclusions: Our analysis highlights a concerning increase in fluconazole resistance among C. glabrata and C. parapsilosis isolates in 2021 compared with previous years. Further investigation of the observed increases in fluconazole resistance among these Candida spp could provide further insight on potential drivers of resistance or limitations in reported results from large databases. More analyses are needed to understand rates, sites of Candida infections, and risk factors (eg, antifungal exposure) associated with resistance.
Background: Multimodal approaches are often used to prevent transmission of antimicrobial-resistant pathogens among patients in healthcare settings; understanding the effect of individual interventions is challenging. We designed a model to compare the effectiveness of hand hygiene (HH) with or without decolonization in reducing patient colonization with carbapenem-resistant Enterobacterales (CRE). Methods: We developed an agent-based model to represent transmission of CRE in an acute-care hospital comprising 3 general wards and 2 ICUs, each with 20 single-occupancy rooms, located in a community of 85,000 people. The model accounted for the movement of healthcare personnel (HCP), including their visits to patients. CRE dynamics were modeled using a susceptible–infectious–susceptible framework with transmission occurring via HCP–patient contacts. The mean time to clearance of CRE colonization without intervention was 387 days (Zimmerman et al, 2013). Our baseline included a facility-level HH compliance of 30%, with an assumed efficacy of 50%. Contact precautions were employed for patients with CRE-positive cultures with assumed adherence and efficacy of 80% and 50%, respectively. Intervention scenarios included decolonization of culture-positive CRE patients, with a mean time to decolonization of 3 days. We considered 2 hypothetical intervention scenarios: (A) decolonization of patients with the baseline HH compliance and (B) decolonization with a slightly improved HH compliance of 35%. The hospital-level CRE incidence rate was used to compare the results from these intervention scenarios. Results: CRE incidence rates were lower in intervention scenarios than the baseline scenario (Fig. 1). The baseline mean incidence rate was 29.1 per 10,000 patient days. For decolonization with the baseline HH, the mean incidence rate decreased to 14.5 per 10,000 patient days, which is a 50.2% decrease relative to the baseline incidence (Table 1). The decolonization scenario with a slightly improved HH compliance of 35% produced a relative reduction of 71.9% relative to the baseline incidence. Conclusions: Our analysis shows that decolonization, combined with modest improvement in HH compliance, could lead to large decreases in pathogen transmission. In turn, this model implies that efforts to identify and improve decolonization strategies for better patient safety in health care may be needed and are worth exploring.
Background: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a common indication for antibiotic prescribing in hospitalized patients. Professional societies’ clinical guidelines recommend specific antibiotics for empiric treatment of CAP based on clinical factors. Manual assessments of appropriateness are time-consuming and are often conducted on a smaller scale. We evaluated empiric antibiotic selection among a large cohort of adults hospitalized with CAP using electronic health records. Methods: In this study, we used the PINC-AI healthcare database to define a cohort of adults hospitalized with CAP from 2013 to 2020. CAP was identified by International Classification of Diseases (ICD) diagnosis codes. Exclusions were applied to identify uncomplicated CAP (Fig. 1). Treatment was only evaluated if a chest radiograph or computerized tomography (CT) scan was charged during the first 2 days of hospitalization, otherwise it was considered an inadequate CAP evaluation. Administrative billing data were used to identify antibiotics charged within the first 2 days of hospitalization. Empiric guideline-recommended treatment was determined based on 2019 CAP guidelines and more recent studies. Patients who received nonrecommended treatment were evaluated for antibiotic allergies in the current hospitalization or methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonization or infection in the year prior or on admission using International Classification of Disease, Tenth Revision (ICD-10) diagnosis codes. Results: We identified 4.47 million adult hospitalizations with CAP from 2013 to 2020; 32% (1.43 million) were included in this analysis (Fig. 1). Among discharges with adequate CAP evaluation (1.37 million), 59.7% received recommended antibiotics in the first 2 days of hospitalization, ranging from 62.6% in 2013 to 57.5% in 2019. Overall, 34.8% of our study population received a nonrecommended antibiotic without documentation of an antibiotic allergy or MRSA colonization (2013: 32.5%; 2018: 36.7%) (Fig. 2). Most patients in our study population received >1 antibiotic (92.3%) in the first 2 days of hospitalization. The most common antibiotics among patients receiving recommended treatment were ceftriaxone (74.2% of patients receiving recommended treatment), azithromycin (67.2%), and levofloxacin (31.8%) (Fig. 3a). The most common nonrecommended antibiotics were vancomycin (57.2% of patients receiving nonrecommended treatment), piperacillin-tazobactam (48.1%), and cefepime (25.7%) (Fig. 3b). From 2013 to 2020, cefepime charges consistently increased among CAP patients treated with nonrecommended antibiotics, whereas levofloxacin charges consistently decreased among CAP patients treated with only recommended antibiotics. Conclusions: Approximately one-third of patients with uncomplicated CAP received nonrecommended empiric antibiotics, and from 2013 to 2020 that proportion increased by 9%. Additional strategies are needed to help identify opportunities to optimize antibiotic selection among patients with CAP.
Background: The 2014 US National Strategy for Combating Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria aimed to reduce inappropriate inpatient antibiotic use by 20% for monitored conditions, such as community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), by 2020. Clinical guidelines recommend treating uncomplicated CAP with a minimum of 5 days of antibiotic therapy. Total length of therapy (LOT) >7 days or >3 days after clinical improvement is rarely necessary. In a previous study estimating LOT in uncomplicated CAP patients, 71% of patients ≥65 years exceeded recommended duration of antibiotics in 2012–2013 (Yi et al, 2018). We evaluated annual trends in LOT in adults ≥65 years hospitalized with uncomplicated CAP from 2013 to 2020. Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study among patients in the CMS database with a primary diagnosis of bacterial or unspecified pneumonia using International Classification of Diseases 9th and 10th Revision codes, length of stay (LOS) of 2–10 days, discharged home with self-care, and not rehospitalized in the 3 days following discharge. Discharge home was used as a surrogate for clinical improvement. Because inpatient LOT is not available in CMS data, we used linear regression to model inpatient LOT as a function of LOS using data on CAP patients ≥65 years from the PINC AI healthcare database. Postdischarge LOT was based on prescriptions filled following discharge. Total LOT was calculated by summing estimated inpatient LOT and actual postdischarge LOT (Fig. 1). Total LOT >7 days and postdischarge LOT >3 days were considered indicators of likely excessive LOT. We reported trends in the proportion of patients with likely excessive LOT during the study period. Results: From 2013 through 2020, there were 400,928 uncomplicated CAP hospitalizations among patients aged ≥65 years. Patients were more likely to be female (55%), and they had a median age of 76 years and a median LOS of 3 days. The median total LOT decreased from 9.5 days in 2013 to 7.7 days in 2020. The proportion of patients with total LOT >7 days decreased from 68% in 2013 to 50% in 2020 (% change, −27%); the proportion with postdischarge LOT >3 days decreased from 73% in 2013 to 62% in 2020 (% change, −16%) (Fig. 2). Conclusions: Likely excessive total LOT for adults ≥65 years hospitalized with uncomplicated CAP decreased by 27% in 2020, a considerable improvement from 2013. However, the high proportion of patients with likely excessive postdischarge LOT in 2020 (62%) demonstrates the need for antibiotic stewardship to optimize prescribing at hospital discharge.
One in six nursing home residents and staff with positive SARS-CoV-2 tests ≥90 days after initial infection had specimen cycle thresholds (Ct) <30. Individuals with specimen Ct<30 were more likely to report symptoms but were not different from individuals with high Ct value specimens by other clinical and testing data.
The coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic caused substantial changes to healthcare delivery and antibiotic prescribing beginning in March 2020. To assess pandemic impact on Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) rates, we described patients and trends in facility-level incidence, testing rates, and percent positivity during 2019–2020 in a large cohort of US hospitals.
We estimated and compared rates of community-onset CDI (CO-CDI) per 10,000 discharges, hospital-onset CDI (HO-CDI) per 10,000 patient days, and C. difficile testing rates per 10,000 discharges in 2019 and 2020. We calculated percent positivity as the number of inpatients diagnosed with CDI over the total number of discharges with a test for C. difficile. We used an interrupted time series (ITS) design with negative binomial and logistic regression models to describe level and trend changes in rates and percent positivity before and after March 2020.
In pairwise comparisons, overall CO-CDI rates decreased from 20.0 to 15.8 between 2019 and 2020 (P < .0001). HO-CDI rates did not change. Using ITS, we detected decreasing monthly trends in CO-CDI (−1% per month, P = .0036) and HO-CDI incidence (−1% per month, P < .0001) during the baseline period, prior to the COVID-19 pandemic declaration. We detected no change in monthly trends for CO-CDI or HO-CDI incidence or percent positivity after March 2020 compared with the baseline period.
While there was a slight downward trajectory in CDI trends prior to March 2020, no significant change in CDI trends occurred during the COVID-19 pandemic despite changes in infection control practices, antibiotic use, and healthcare delivery.
Background: Previously, we reported decreasing postadmission urine-culture rates in hospitalized patients between 2012 and 2017, indicating a possible decrease in hospital-onset urinary tract infections or changes in diagnostic practices in acute-care hospitals (ACHs). In this study, we re-evaluated the trends using more recent data from 2017–2020 to assess whether new trends in hospital urine-culturing practices had emerged. Method: We conducted a longitudinal analysis of monthly urine-culture rates using microbiology data from 355 ACHs participating in the Premier Healthcare Database in 2017–2020. All cultures from the urinary tract collected on or before day 3 were defined as admission urine cultures and those collected on day 4 or later were defined as postadmission urine cultures. We included discharges from months where a hospital reported at least 1 urine culture with microbiology and antimicrobial susceptibility test results. Annual estimates of rates of admission culture and postadmission urine-culture rates were assessed using general estimating equation models with a negative binomial distribution accounting for hospital-level clustering and adjusting for hospital bed size, teaching status, urban–rural designation, discharge month, and census division. Estimated rate for each year (2018, 2019, and 2020) was compared to previous year’s estimated rate using rate ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) generated through the multivariable GEE models. Results: From 2017 to 2020, we included 8.7 million discharges and 1,943,540 urine cultures, of which 299,013 (15.4%) were postadmission urine cultures. In 2017–2020, unadjusted admission culture rates were 20.0, 19.6, 17.9, and 18.2 per 100 discharges respectively; similarly, unadjusted postadmission urine-culture rates were 8.6, 7.8, 7.0, and 7.5 per 1,000 patient days. In the multivariable analysis, adjusting for hospital characteristics, no significant changes in admission urine-culture rates were detected during 2017–2019; however, in 2020, admission urine-culture rates increased 6% compared to 2019 (RR, 1.06; 95% CI, 1.02–1.09) (Fig. 1). Postadmission urine-culture rates decreased 4% in 2018 compared to 2017 (RR, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.91–0.99) and 8% in 2019 compared to 2018 (RR, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.87–0.96). In 2020, postadmission urine-culture rates increased 10% compared to 2019 (RR, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.06–1.14) (Fig. 2). Factors significantly associated with postadmission urine-culture rates included discharge month and hospital bed size. For admission urine cultures, discharge month was the only significant factor. Conclusions: Between 2017–2019, postadmission urine-culture rates continued a decreasing trend, while admission culture rates remained unchanged. However, in 2020 both admission and postadmission urine culture rates increased significantly in comparison to 2019.
Previously reported associations between hospital-level antibiotic use and hospital-onset Clostridioides difficile infection (HO-CDI) were reexamined using 2012–2018 data from a new cohort of US acute-care hospitals. This analysis revealed significant positive associations between total, third-generation, and fourth-generation cephalosporin, fluoroquinolone, carbapenem, and piperacillin-tazobactam use and HO-CDI rates, confirming previous findings.
To develop a pediatric research agenda focused on pediatric healthcare-associated infections and antimicrobial stewardship topics that will yield the highest impact on child health.
The study included 26 geographically diverse adult and pediatric infectious diseases clinicians with expertise in healthcare-associated infection prevention and/or antimicrobial stewardship (topic identification and ranking of priorities), as well as members of the Division of Healthcare Quality and Promotion at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (topic identification).
Using a modified Delphi approach, expert recommendations were generated through an iterative process for identifying pediatric research priorities in healthcare associated infection prevention and antimicrobial stewardship. The multistep, 7-month process included a literature review, interactive teleconferences, web-based surveys, and 2 in-person meetings.
A final list of 12 high-priority research topics were generated in the 2 domains. High-priority healthcare-associated infection topics included judicious testing for Clostridioides difficile infection, chlorhexidine (CHG) bathing, measuring and preventing hospital-onset bloodstream infection rates, surgical site infection prevention, surveillance and prevention of multidrug resistant gram-negative rod infections. Antimicrobial stewardship topics included β-lactam allergy de-labeling, judicious use of perioperative antibiotics, intravenous to oral conversion of antimicrobial therapy, developing a patient-level “harm index” for antibiotic exposure, and benchmarking and or peer comparison of antibiotic use for common inpatient conditions.
We identified 6 healthcare-associated infection topics and 6 antimicrobial stewardship topics as potentially high-impact targets for pediatric research.
Background: Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) are endemic in the Chicago region. We assessed the regional impact of a CRE control intervention targeting high-prevalence facilities; that is, long-term acute-care hospitals (LTACHs) and ventilator-capable skilled nursing facilities (vSNFs). Methods: In July 2017, an academic–public health partnership launched a regional CRE prevention bundle: (1) identifying patient CRE status by querying Illinois’ XDRO registry and periodic point-prevalence surveys reported to public health, (2) cohorting or private rooms with contact precautions for CRE patients, (3) combining hand hygiene adherence, monitoring with general infection control education, and guidance by project coordinators and public health, and (4) daily chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) bathing. Informed by epidemiology and modeling, we targeted LTACHs and vSNFs in a 13-mile radius from the coordinating center. Illinois mandates CRE reporting to the XDRO registry, which can also be manually queried or generate automated alerts to facilitate interfacility communication. The regional intervention promoted increased automation of alerts to hospitals. The prespecified primary outcome was incident clinical CRE culture reported to the XDRO registry in Cook County by month, analyzed by segmented regression modeling. A secondary outcome was colonization prevalence measured by serial point-prevalence surveys for carbapenemase-producing organism colonization in LTACHs and vSNFs. Results: All eligible LTACHs (n = 6) and vSNFs (n = 9) participated in the intervention. One vSNF declined CHG bathing. vSNFs that implemented CHG bathing typically bathed residents 2–3 times per week instead of daily. Overall, there were significant gaps in infection control practices, especially in vSNFs. Also, 75 Illinois hospitals adopted automated alerts (56 during the intervention period). Mean CRE incidence in Cook County decreased from 59.0 cases per month during baseline to 40.6 cases per month during intervention (P < .001). In a segmented regression model, there was an average reduction of 10.56 cases per month during the 24-month intervention period (P = .02) (Fig. 1), and an estimated 253 incident CRE cases were averted. Mean CRE incidence also decreased among the stratum of vSNF/LTACH intervention facilities (P = .03). However, evidence of ongoing CRE transmission, particularly in vSNFs, persisted, and CRE colonization prevalence remained high at intervention facilities (Table 1). Conclusions: A resource-intensive public health regional CRE intervention was implemented that included enhanced interfacility communication and targeted infection prevention. There was a significant decline in incident CRE clinical cases in Cook County, despite high persistent CRE colonization prevalence in intervention facilities. vSNFs, where understaffing or underresourcing were common and lengths of stay range from months to years, had a major prevalence challenge, underscoring the need for aggressive infection control improvements in these facilities.
Funding: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (SHEPheRD Contract No. 200-2011-42037)
Disclosures: M.Y.L. has received research support in the form of contributed product from OpGen and Sage Products (now part of Stryker Corporation), and has received an investigator-initiated grant from CareFusion Foundation (now part of BD).
Background: Studies on the effectiveness of hospital-based interventions often measure hospital-onset infections as the outcome of interest. However, hospital-associated infections may manifest after patient discharge (classified as hospital-associated community-onset, HACO), and the epidemiology may vary by antibiotic resistance (AR) profile. We examined the epidemiology and trends of HACO infections of AR and non–antibiotic-resistant (non-AR) bacteria. Methods: We included clinical community-onset (CO) cultures (obtained sooner than or on day 3 of hospitalization) yielding the bacterial species of interest among hospitalized patients in 260 hospitals in the Premier Healthcare Database from 2012 to 2017. HACO infections were defined as CO cultures in a patient who had a previous hospitalization in the same hospital within 30 days. We examined methicillin resistance among Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin resistance among Enterococcus spp (VRE), carbapenem resistance among Enterobacteriaceae (E. coli, Klebsiella spp, and Enterobacter spp) (CRE), extended-spectrum cephalosporin resistance suggestive of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) production in Enterobacteriaceae, carbapenem resistance among Acinetobacter spp (CRAsp), and carbapenem resistance among Pseudomonas aeruginosa (CRPA). We described the proportion of CO infections that were HACO, the proportion of HACO infections from sterile sites, overall HACO rates, and annual trends for sensitive and resistant phenotypes. Generalized estimating equation regression models that accounted for hospital-level clustering were used to estimate annual trends controlling for hospital characteristics and month of discharge. Results: The rate of HACO infections by pathogen ranged from 0.78 to 38.76 per 10,000 hospitalizations; 7%–34% were sterile site infections (Table 1). For each bacterial pathogen, a significantly higher proportion of AR CO infections had a previous hospitalization compared to non-AR CO infections (all χ2, P < .05). The annual trends for AR and non-AR HACO infections between 2012 and 2017 were significantly decreasing for most pathogens, except ESBL HACO infections. Conclusions: Even when using a definition limited to readmission to the same hospital, HACO infections occur commonly with differing rates by pathogen and antibiotic resistance profile. Although these rates are decreasing for most of the pathogens studied, improving surveillance and identifying prevention strategies for these infections are necessary to further reduce the burden of hospital-associated infections.
Background: In recent years, the historic declines in the incidence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bloodstream infections (BSIs) in the United States have slowed. We examined trends in the incidence of community-onset (CO) MRSA BSIs among hospitalized persons with and without substance-use diagnoses. Methods: Using data from >200 US hospitals reporting to the Premier Healthcare Database (PHD) during 2012–2017, we conducted a retrospective study among hospitalized persons aged ≥18 years. MRSA BSIs with substance use were defined as hospitalizations having both a blood culture positive for MRSA and at least 1 International Classification of Disease, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) or ICD-10-CM diagnostic code for substance use including opioids, cocaine, amphetamines, or other substances (excluding cannabis, alcohol, and nicotine). MRSA BSIs were considered community onset when a positive blood culture was collected within 3 days of admission. We assessed annual trends and described characteristics of CO MRSA BSI hospitalizations, stratified by substance use. Results: Of 20,049 MRSA BSIs from 2012 to 2017, 17,634 (88%) were CO. Overall, MRSA BSI incidence decreased 7%, from 178.5 to 166.2 per 100,000 hospitalizations during the study period; However, CO MRSA BSI rates remained stable (152.7 to 149.9 per 100,000 hospitalizations). Among CO MRSA BSIs, 1,838 (10%) were BSIs with substance-use diagnoses; the incidence of CO MRSA BSIs with substance use increased 236% (from 8.2 to 27.6 per 100,000 hospitalizations) and represented a greater proportion of the CO MRSA rate over the study period (Fig. 1). The incidence of CO MRSA BSIs without substance use decreased 15% (from 144.5 to 122.4 per 100,000 hospitalizations). Patients with CO MRSA BSIs with substance use were younger (median, 40 vs 65 years), more likely to be female (50% vs 40%), white (79% vs 69%), and to leave against medical advice (15% vs 1%). Among patients not leaving against medical advice, CO BSI patients with substance-use diagnoses had longer lengths of stay (median, 11 vs 9 days), lower in-hospital mortality (9% vs 14%), and higher hospitalization costs (median, $22,912 vs $17,468) compared to patients without substance-use diagnoses. Conclusions: Although the overall CO MRSA BSI rate remained unchanged from 2012 to 2017, infections with substance use diagnoses increased >3-fold, and infections without substance use diagnoses decreased. These data suggest that the emergence of MRSA associated with substance-use diagnoses threatens potential progress in reducing the incidence of CO MRSA infections. Additional strategies may be needed to prevent MRSA BSI in patients with substance-use diagnoses, and to maintain national progress in the reduction of MRSA infections overall.
Background: Certain nursing home (NH) resident care tasks have a higher risk for multidrug-resistant organisms (MDRO) transfer to healthcare personnel (HCP), which can result in transmission to residents if HCPs fail to perform recommended infection prevention practices. However, data on HCP-resident interactions are limited and do not account for intrafacility practice variation. Understanding differences in interactions, by HCP role and unit, is important for informing MDRO prevention strategies in NHs. Methods: In 2019, we conducted serial intercept interviews; each HCP was interviewed 6–7 times for the duration of a unit’s dayshift at 20 NHs in 7 states. The next day, staff on a second unit within the facility were interviewed during the dayshift. HCP on 38 units were interviewed to identify healthcare personnel (HCP)–resident care patterns. All unit staff were eligible for interviews, including certified nursing assistants (CNAs), nurses, physical or occupational therapists, physicians, midlevel practitioners, and respiratory therapists. HCP were asked to list which residents they had cared for (within resident rooms or common areas) since the prior interview. Respondents selected from 14 care tasks. We classified units into 1 of 4 types: long-term, mixed, short stay or rehabilitation, or ventilator or skilled nursing. Interactions were classified based on the risk of HCP contamination after task performance. We compared proportions of interactions associated with each HCP role and performed clustered linear regression to determine the effect of unit type and HCP role on the number of unique task types performed per interaction. Results: Intercept-interviews described 7,050 interactions and 13,843 care tasks. Except in ventilator or skilled nursing units, CNAs have the greatest proportion of care interactions (interfacility range, 50%–60%) (Fig. 1). In ventilator and skilled nursing units, interactions are evenly shared between CNAs and nurses (43% and 47%, respectively). On average, CNAs in ventilator and skilled nursing units perform the most unique task types (2.5 task types per interaction, Fig. 2) compared to other unit types (P < .05). Compared to CNAs, most other HCP types had significantly fewer task types (0.6–1.4 task types per interaction, P < .001). Across all facilities, 45.6% of interactions included tasks that were higher-risk for HCP contamination (eg, transferring, wound and device care, Fig. 3). Conclusions: Focusing infection prevention education efforts on CNAs may be most efficient for preventing MDRO transmission within NH because CNAs have the most HCP–resident interactions and complete more tasks per visit. Studies of HCP-resident interactions are critical to improving understanding of transmission mechanisms as well as target MDRO prevention interventions.
Funding: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (grant no. U01CK000555-01-00)
Disclosures: Scott Fridkin, consulting fee, vaccine industry (spouse)
Background: Chlorhexidine bathing reduces bacterial skin colonization and prevents infections in specific patient populations. As chlorhexidine use becomes more widespread, concerns about bacterial tolerance to chlorhexidine have increased; however, testing for chlorhexidine minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) is challenging. We adapted a broth microdilution (BMD) method to determine whether chlorhexidine MICs changed over time among 4 important healthcare-associated pathogens. Methods: Antibiotic-resistant bacterial isolates (Staphylococcus aureus from 2005 to 2019 and Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Enterobacter cloacae complex from 2011 to 2019) were collected through Emerging Infections Program surveillance in 2 sites (Georgia and Tennessee) or through public health reporting in 1 site (Orange County, California). A convenience sample of isolates were collected from facilities with varying amounts of chlorhexidine use. We performed BMD testing using laboratory-developed panels with chlorhexidine digluconate concentrations ranging from 0.125 to 64 μg/mL. After successfully establishing reproducibility with quality control organisms, 3 laboratories performed MIC testing. For each organism, epidemiological cutoff values (ECVs) were established using ECOFFinder. Results: Among 538 isolates tested (129 S. aureus, 158 E. coli, 142 K. pneumoniae, and 109 E. cloacae complex), S. aureus, E. coli, K. pneumoniae, and E. cloacae complex ECVs were 8, 4, 64, and 64 µg/mL, respectively (Table 1). Moreover, 14 isolates had an MIC above the ECV (12 E. coli and 2 E. cloacae complex). The MIC50 of each species is reported over time (Table 2). Conclusions: Using an adapted BMD method, we found that chlorhexidine MICs did not increase over time among a limited sample of S. aureus, E. coli, K. pneumoniae, and E. cloacae complex isolates. Although these results are reassuring, continued surveillance for elevated chlorhexidine MICs in isolates from patients with well-characterized chlorhexidine exposure is needed as chlorhexidine use increases.
Background: There is great enthusiasm for the potential of decision support tools embedded in the electronic medical record to improve antimicrobial use in hospitals. Yet they are often limited in their ability to change prescriber behavior. Analyzing these tools using an interactive sociotechnical approach (ISTA) can identify barriers and facilitators to the implementation of electronic decision support (EDS) in antimicrobial stewardship. Objective: To examine prescriber and antimicrobial steward perceptions of EDS using an ISTA approach in the preimplementation phase of an antimicrobial stewardship intervention. Methods: We conducted semistructured interviews with prescribers and stewards from 4 hospitals in 2 health systems in the context of a multicomponent intervention to improve the use of fluoroquinolones and extended-spectrum cephalosporins. Sites planned to implement various EDS elements including order sets, antimicrobial time outs, and audit with feedback stewardship notes in the medical record. Interviews elicited respondent perceptions about the planned intervention. Two analysts systematically coded transcripts using an ISTA framework in NVivo12 software. Results: Interviews with 64 respondents were conducted: 38 physicians, 7 nurses, 6 advanced practice providers, and 13 pharmacists. We identified 4 key sociotechnical interaction types likely to influence stewardship EDS implementation. First, EDS changes the communication patterns and practices of antimicrobial stewards in a way that improves efficiency but decreases vital social interaction with prescribers to facilitate behavior change. Second, there is a gap between what stewards envision for EDS and that which is possible to build in a timely manner by hospital information technology specialists. As a result, there is often a months- to years-long delay from proposal to implementation, which negatively affects intervention acceptance. Third, prescribers expressed great enthusiasm for stewardship EDS that would simplify their workload, allow them to complete important work tasks, and save time. They strongly objected to stewardship EDS that was disruptive without a compelling purpose or did not integrate smoothly with pre-existing technology infrastructure. Fourth, physician prescribers attributed social and emotional meaning to stewardship EDS, suggesting that these tools can undermine professional authority, autonomy, and confidence. Conclusions: Implementing stewardship EDS in a way that improves the use of antimicrobials while minimizing unintended negative consequences requires attention to the interplay between new EDS and an organization’s existing workflow, culture, social interactions and technologies. Implementing EDS in stewardship will require attention to these domains to realize the full potential of these tools and to avoid negative unintended consequences.
Background: Microbiology data are utilized to quantify epidemiology and trends in pathogens, antimicrobial resistance, and bloodstream infections. Understanding variability and trends in rates of hospital-level blood culture utilization may be important for interpreting these findings. Methods: We used clinical microbiology results and discharge data to identify monthly blood culture rates from US hospitals participating in the Premier Healthcare Database during 2012–2017. We included all discharges from months where a hospital reported at least 1 blood culture with microbiology and antimicrobial susceptibility results. Blood cultures drawn on or before day 3 were defined as admission cultures (ACs); blood cultures collected after day 3 were defined as a postadmission cultures (PACs). The AC rate was defined as the proportion of all hospitalizations with an AC. The PAC rate was defined as the number of days with a PAC among all patient days. Generalized estimating equation regression models that accounted for hospital-level clustering with an exchangeable correlation matrix were used to measure associations of monthly rates with hospital bed size, teaching status, urban–rural designation, region, month, and year. The AC rates were modeled using logistic regression, and the PAC rates were modeled using a Poisson distribution. Results: We included 11.7 million hospitalizations from 259 hospitals, accounting for nearly 52 million patient days. The median annual hospital-level AC rate was 27.1%, with interhospital variation ranging from 21.1% (quartile 1) to 35.2% (quartile 3) (Fig. 1). Multivariable models revealed no significant trends over time (P = .74), but statistically significant associations between AC rates with month (P < .001) and region (P = .003), associations with teaching status (P = .063), and urban-rural designation (P = .083) approached statistical significance. There was no association with bed size (P = .38). The median annual hospital-level PAC rate was 11.1 per 1,000 patient days, and interhospital variability ranged from 7.6 (quartile 1) to 15.2 (quartile 3) (Fig. 2). Multivariable models of PAC rates showed no significant trends over time (P = .12). We found associations between PAC rates with month (P = .016), bed size (P = .030), and teaching status (P = .040). PAC rates were not associated with urban–rural designation (P = .52) or region (P = .29). Conclusions: Blood culture utilization rates in this large cohort of hospitals were unchanged between 2012 and 2017, though substantial interhospital variability was detected. Although both AC and PAC rates vary by time of year and potentially by teaching status, AC rates vary by geographic characteristics whereas PAC rates vary by bed size. These factors are important to consider when comparing rates of bloodstream infections by hospital.
Fluoroquinolones (FQs) and extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESCs) are associated with higher risk of Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI). Decreasing the unnecessary use of FQs and ESCs is a goal of antimicrobial stewardship. Understanding how prescribers perceive the risks and benefits of FQs and ESCs is needed.
We conducted interviews with clinicians from 4 hospitals. Interviews elicited respondent perceptions about the risk of ESCs, FQs, and CDI. Interviews were audio recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using a flexible coding approach.
Interviews were conducted with 64 respondents (38 physicians, 7 nurses, 6 advance practice providers, and 13 pharmacists). ESCs and FQs were perceived to have many benefits, including infrequent dosing, breadth of coverage, and greater patient adherence after hospital discharge. Prescribers stated that it was easy to make decisions about these drugs, so they were especially appealing to use in the context of time pressures. They described having difficulty discontinuing these drugs when prescribed by others due to inertia and fear. Prescribers were skeptical about targeting specific drugs as a stewardship approach and felt that the risk of a negative outcome from under treatment of a suspected bacterial infection was a higher priority than the prevention of CDI.
Prescribers in this study perceived many advantages to using ESCs and FQs, especially under conditions of time pressure and uncertainty. In making decisions about these drugs, prescribers balance risk and benefit, and they believed that the risk of CDI was acceptable in compared with the risk of undertreatment.
Water exposures in healthcare settings and during healthcare delivery can place patients at risk for infection with water-related organisms and can potentially lead to outbreaks. We aimed to describe Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) consultations involving water-related organisms leading to healthcare-associated infections (HAIs).
Retrospective observational study.
We reviewed internal CDC records from January 1, 2014, through December 31, 2017, using water-related terms and organisms, excluding Legionella, to identify consultations that involved potential or confirmed transmission of water-related organisms in healthcare. We determined plausible exposure pathways and routes of transmission when possible.
Of 620 consultations during the study period, we identified 134 consultations (21.6%), with 1,380 patients, that involved the investigation of potential water-related HAIs or infection control lapses with the potential for water-related HAIs. Nontuberculous mycobacteria were involved in the greatest number of investigations (n = 40, 29.9%). Most frequently, investigations involved medical products (n = 48, 35.8%), and most of these products were medical devices (n = 40, 83.3%). We identified a variety of plausible water-exposure pathways, including medication preparation near water splash zones and water contamination at the manufacturing sites of medications and medical devices.
Water-related investigations represent a substantial proportion of CDC HAI consultations and likely represent only a fraction of all water-related HAI investigations and outbreaks occurring in US healthcare facilities. Water-related HAI investigations should consider all potential pathways of water exposure. Finally, healthcare facilities should develop and implement water management programs to limit the growth and spread of water-related organisms.
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