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This paper presents new water-soluble bio-polyelectrolyte-based nanoparticles, formed from lanthanide-induced polysaccharide aggregates (LIPAs). These new nano-aggregates are formed by coordinating a photoluminescent lanthanide–ligand complex to a single polyelectrolyte [i.e. polyanionic hyaluronic acid (HA)] or to two oppositely charged polyelectrolytes [i.e. HA and polycationic chitosan (CHI)]. We demonstrate that photoluminescent Eu3+–ligand complexes, which are dispersed homogeneously in aqueous solution by the association with water-soluble HA. The polysaccharide supermolecular assembly can be tuned to obtain nanoparticles of different sizes and surface charges. The preparation of stable and water-soluble lanthanide complexes via Eu3+–LIPAs opens opportunities for use of luminescent lanthanides in aqueous environments, for biosensing and bioimaging applications.
Palladium (Pd) nanostructures have been actively adapted for various applications and their properties and applicability closely depend on their shape, size, and density. In this paper, the evolution of self-assembled Pd nanostructures on the hexagonal c-plane GaN is presented by the systematical control of Pd deposition amount (DA) at distinctive temperatures. Pd nanostructures of various configurations, sizes, and densities are demonstrated based on the solid-state dewetting of Pd thin films and a clear distinction in the growth regimes is observed. Three growth regimes are clearly observed depending on the variation of DA, i.e., (i) the agglomeration of Pd nanoparticles, (ii) the coalescence of wiggly Pd nanostructures, and finally (iii) the growth of nanovoids and layers. Owing to the temperature-dependent dewetting process, the growth regimes are markedly shifted, resulting in the distinctive Pd nanostructures within the identical DA range. The results are discussed in conjunction with the surface diffusion, Volmer–Weber and coalescence growth model, and surface/interface energy minimization mechanism. In addition, the evolution of optical properties, emission band, and lattice properties are probed by reflectance, photoluminescence, and Raman spectroscopy, which exhibit varying spectral intensity and peak positions according to the surface morphology of Pd nanostructures.
Magnetic fields are an important component in galaxies, and yet, we still do not know how these magnetic fields were originally seeded within galaxies, nor how they have grown to the strengths we observe today. One way we can unravel this complex problem is by measuring the growth of magnetic fields over cosmic time. We present the initial results of a rotation measure study to search for the presence of coherent magnetic fields around young disk-like galaxies at z ~ 0.5. The S-band receiver at the VLA allows us to simultaneously observe Stokes I, Q, U, and V from 2-4 GHz. With these broadband polarization observations we apply multiple methods for determining the rotation measure of each source, improving the fidelity of our results. Beyond magnetogenesis, the results of this study also have implications for the life-cycle of baryons within galaxies and the composition of galactic haloes.
We are undertaking a project (MAGMO) to examine large-scale magnetic fields pervading regions of high-mass star formation. The project will test if the orientations of weak large-scale magnetic fields can be maintained in the contraction (and field amplification) to the high densities encountered in high-mass star forming regions. This will be achieved through correlating targeted observations of ground-state hydroxyl (OH) maser emission towards hundreds of sites of high-mass star formation spread throughout the spiral arms of the Milky Way. Through the Zeeman splitting of the OH maser emission these observations will determine the strength and orientation of the in-situ magnetic field. The completion of the southern hemisphere Methanol Multibeam survey has provided an abundance of targets for ground-state OH maser observations, approximately 1000 sites of high-mass star formation. With this sample, much larger and more homogeneous than previously available, we will have the statistics necessary to outweigh random fluctuations and observe an underlying Galactic magnetic field if it exists. We presented details of the overall progress of the project illustrated by the results of a pilot sample of sources towards the Carina-Sagittarius spiral arm tangent, where a coherent field is implied.
A yellow leaf curl disease with chlorotic and yellowish leaves, upward leaf curling and stunting symptoms was observed on tomato in Shantou city of Guangdong province. A virus isolate BS was obtained from a diseased tomato plant. The complete DNA-A sequence of the virus isolate BS was determined to be 2740 nucleotides long, with all the characteristic features of begomovirus genome organization. BS DNA-A encoded six potential open reading frames (ORFs), with two (AV1 and AV2) in virus sense and four (AC1, AC2, AC3 and AC4) in complementary sense, and contained an intergenic region of 269 nucleotides. The results of BLAST searches showed that BS DNA-A had higher sequence identity with reported begomoviruses in Asia than with those in America and Africa. Further sequence comparisons indicated that BS was most closely related to the isolate of Tomato leaf curl Taiwan virus (ToLCTWV-[Taiwan]) with a sequence identity of 97.7%. Nucleotide sequence identities of AV1, AV2, AC1, AC2, AC3, AC4 and intergenic region (IR) between BS and ToLCTWV-[Taiwan] were 98.6, 98.0, 98.0, 97.5, 96.3, 98.6 and 96.6%, respectively, while that of the six ORF-encoded proteins between BS and ToLCTWV-[Taiwan] were 97.7, 99.1, 97.5, 95.6, 91.8 and 99.0%, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis based on the DNA-A sequences has also indicated that BS is most closely related to ToLCTWV-[Taiwan], forming a branch with ToLCTWV-[Taiwan], Tomato leaf curl Guangdong virus and Tomato yellow leaf curl Guangdong virus. The above results demonstrate that BS is an isolate of ToLCTWV.
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