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Prehistoric copper and bronze objects are found throughout Island Southeast Asia, many of which were manufactured in Mainland Southeast Asia and exchanged over vast distances. The contexts of initial metal use and production across this maritime region are poorly known and rarely dated—particularly in the islands east of Wallace's Line. The authors report on two recent finds of bronze Dong Son drums in Timor-Leste, which, with their incised decoration, are examined in the context of elaborately shaped socketed axes depicted in the island's rock art, discussing their role and significance for understanding exchange networks and practices including raiding, headhunting and ceremonial activities.
Antineuronal antibodies are associated with psychosis, although their clinical significance in first episode of psychosis (FEP) is undetermined.
To examine all patients admitted for treatment of FEP for antineuronal antibodies and describe clinical presentations and treatment outcomes in those who were antibody positive.
Individuals admitted for FEP to six mental health units in Queensland, Australia, were prospectively tested for serum antineuronal antibodies. Antibody-positive patients were referred for neurological and immunological assessment and therapy.
Of 113 consenting participants, six had antineuronal antibodies (anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antibodies [n = 4], voltage-gated potassium channel antibodies [n = 1] and antibodies against uncharacterised antigen [n = 1]). Five received immunotherapy, which prompted resolution of psychosis in four.
A small subgroup of patients admitted to hospital with FEP have antineuronal antibodies detectable in serum and are responsive to immunotherapy. Early diagnosis and treatment is critical to optimise recovery.
Over the past few decades, point-of-care ultrasound (PoCUS) has come to play a major role in the practice of emergency medicine. Despite its numerous benefits, there has been a slow uptake of PoCUS use in rural emergency departments. Surveys conducted across Canada and the United States have identified a lack of equipment, training, funding, quality assurance, and an inability to maintain skills as major barriers to PoCUS use. Potential solutions include expanding residency training in ultrasound skills, extending funding for PoCUS training to rural physicians in practice, moving PoCUS training courses to rural sites, and creating telesonography training for rural physicians. With these barriers identified and solutions proposed, corrective measures must be taken so that the benefits of PoCUS are extended to patients in rural Canada where, arguably, it has the greatest potential for benefit when access to advanced imaging is not readily available.
Ballarat Family Services is the service that has evolved in Ballarat, Victoria as a result of a Department of Human Services initiative, the Family Support Innovation Projects. More than two years after the commencement of the program, Ballarat Family Services is leading a major re-orientation of the service system for families who have borderline involvement with the statutory Child Protection system. This re-orientation involves all parts of the service system, including the nature of the collaborative relationships between non-government agencies and the statutory Child Protection Agency. It has also led to Ballarat Family Services revisiting the nature and purpose of the practice of family support work. This paper will give an overview of the development of Ballarat Family Services and go on to outline the lessons learned in practice, placing them in the context of current theory and research.
Introduction: Common short screening measures of dependence that use number of cigarettes per day may not be appropriate for use in populations of occasional smokers.
Aims: In this study, we investigate whether perceived addiction (PA) predicts quit attempts and successful cessation among occasional smokers.
Methods: Current occasional smokers (18+) in the Ontario Tobacco Survey (OTS) longitudinal cohort study followed up every six months for up to three years. Respondents rated their self-perceived level of addiction (very vs. somewhat or not very addicted). Generalised Estimating Equation models and proportional hazard models were used to test the predictive ability of PA.
Results/Findings: Occasional smokers with very high PA had a higher likelihood of reporting a quit attempt (RR: 2.49; 95% CI: 1.88, 3.30) after adjusting for demographics. Given an incident quit attempt, occasional smokers who reported being very addicted were 2.93 times more likely to relapse (95%: 2.01, 4.28). The effect of PA was independent of other predictors of smoking behaviour.
Conclusions: For some, occasional smokers, smoking cessation is a difficult process that may require significant support. Asking occasional smokers about PA is an effective way to predict likely success in quitting smokers that may be easily assessed in population based, as well as in community and clinical, settings.
The Fezzan Project is investigating the last 10,000 years of human settlement, landscape evolution and climatic change in the Germa region in southern Libya. The second season in February–March 1998 comprised interdisciplinary research in archaeology and geography, centred around excavation and survey work carried out at the site of Old Germa. To date, three phases of mud brick buildings have been partially explored. In addition, wider geomorphological study and archaeological survey and fieldwalking were carried out elsewhere in the Germa/Twesh oasis and around el-Hatiya. Numerous sites were discovered, including a new hillfort of Zinchecra type and several valley centre ‘villages’ of Garamantian/Roman date. Artefactual studies were carried out on pottery and lithics, animal bones and seeds. Further work on the subterranean irrigation features, the foggaras, have confirmed their pre-Islamic origins.
Concern has been expressed over future biogeographical expansion and habitat capitalization by species of the phylum Cnidaria, as this may have negative implications on human activities and ecosystems. There is, however, a paucity of knowledge and understanding of jellyfish ecology, in particular species distribution and seasonality. Recent studies in the UK have principally focused on the Celtic, Irish and North Seas, but all in isolation. In this study we analyse data from a publicly-driven sightings scheme across UK coastal waters (2003–2011; 9 years), with the aim of increasing knowledge on spatial and temporal patterns and trends. We describe inter-annual variability, seasonality and patterns of spatial distribution, and compare these with existing historic literature. Although incidentally-collected data lack quantification of effort, we suggest that with appropriate data management and interpretation, publicly-driven, citizen-science-based, recording schemes can provide for large-scale (spatial and temporal) coverage that would otherwise be logistically and financially unattainable. These schemes may also contribute to baseline data from which future changes in patterns or trends might be identified. We further suggest that findings from such schemes may be strengthened by the inclusion of some element of effort-corrected data collection.
To describe the role, contribution and value of research nurses in New Zealand community-based or primary health care research.
Research nurses are increasingly recognised as having a key role in undertaking successful research in hospitals and clinical trial units however only limited work has been undertaken to examine their role in community-based research. Undertaking health research in the community has unique challenges particularly in relation to research design and recruitment and retention of participants.
We describe four community-based research projects involving research nurses, each with particular recruitment, retention and logistical problems. Vignettes are used to illustrate the role, contribution and value of research nurses in a diverse range of community research projects.
The knowledge and skills used by research nurses in these projects included familiarity with communities, cultural competence, health care systems and practice philosophies and in particular with vulnerable populations. Their research actions and activities include competence with a broad range of research methodologies, organisational efficiency, family-centred approach, along with advocacy and flexibility. These are underpinned by nursing knowledge and clinical expertise contributing to an ability to work autonomously. These four projects demonstrate that research nurses in community-based research possess specific attributes which facilitate successful study development, implementation and outcome.
The ‘beginnings’ of Australian history are always difficult to determine. In addition to Indigenous systems of knowledge with their own epistemologies, understanding ancient Australia involves the disciplines of archaeology, anthropology and linguistics, as well as history. These disciplines developed out of earlier forms of knowledge whereby European explorers, settlers, naturalists, ethnologists, antiquarians and collectors sought to ascertain the Australian past.
In the absence of written records, archaeologists have played a leading role in reconstructing this past. Initially relying on the stratified sequence of excavated material to produce a relative chronology of cultural change, from the 1950s they were able to employ new methods of dating their discoveries – first radiocarbon dating and later electron spin resonance and luminescence methods. During the 1950s it was commonly believed that people had occupied Australia no earlier than 10,000 years ago, during the last Ice Age, and it was only in 1962 that radiocarbon dates exceeded 10,000 years. The earliest known occupation stretched to 20,000 years ago by 1965, 30,000 years by 1969 and 40,000 by 1973.
Within this enlarged chronology, a rapid occupation was posited along with a narrative of adaptation to diverse environments and growing technological sophistication. These findings coincided with demands of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people for self-determination and a growing non-Indigenous appreciation of Indigenous cultures. The common view that Australia had only an abbreviated history gave way to a new awareness of a deep past. Popular interest was served by surveys such as The Prehistory of Australia (1969) by the pioneer archaeologist John Mulvaney, and Josephine Flood's The Archaeology of the Dreamtime (1983). Some historians sought to explore the implications of this extended human occupation, among them Geoffrey Blainey in The Triumph of the Nomads (1975) and Noel Butlin in Economics and the Dreamtime (1993). Yet the increasingly technical nature of archaeology has forged new partnerships with natural history and environmental sciences.
In MCM-D applications, interlayer dielectrics separate and insulate metal conductors to form a three-dimensional interconnection structure. Due to the three-dimensional nature of these structures, the thermal, electrical and mechanical properties of the dielectricmaterials must be known for all orientations in order to correctly design and simulate devices. The most commonly used polymer in microelectronics, polyimide, exists in formulations which have been shown to have a high degree of orientation and exhibit anisotropicproperties.
International Labor and Working-Class History 77 opens with a special thematic feature, “Gendered Activism and the Politics of Women's Work.” In it, we include articles by Karen Hunt (Keele University), Julie Guard (University of Manitoba), Judith Smart (University of Melbourne and RMIT University), and June Hannam (University of the West of England), all of which were originally presented in 2008 at the international conference “Labouring Feminism and Feminist Labour History,” in Stockholm. Rounding out this section is a fifth essay by Kate Hardy (Queen's College, University of London), given first as a lecture at a spring 2009 symposium sponsored by ILWCH at Rutgers University.
The phonetic characteristics of canonical babbling produced by Korean- and English-learning infants were compared with consonant and vowel frequencies observed in infant-directed speech produced by Korean- and English-speaking mothers. For infant output, babbling samples from six Korean-learning infants were compared with an existing English babbling database (Davis & MacNeilage, 1995). For ambient language comparisons, consonants and vowels in ten Korean and ten English infant-directed speech (IDS) samples were analyzed. The two infant groups demonstrated similar consonant patterns, but showed different vowel patterns from one another. For both languages, infant vowel patterns were related to those of ambient language IDS. Ambient language patterns were manifested in infant vowel output, perhaps because vowels are more perceptually and motorically available in the input and output capacities of babbling infants.