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The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between area-level socio-economic status and healthy and less healthy eating behaviours among adolescents and to determine whether the relationship between area-level socio-economic status and dietary behaviours was related to the relevant attitudes and environments.
Data were collected as part of Youth’07, a nationally representative survey of the health and well-being of New Zealand youth.
New Zealand secondary schools, 2007.
A total of 9107 secondary-school students in New Zealand.
Students from more deprived areas perceived more supportive school environments and cared as much about healthy eating as students in more affluent areas. However, these students were significantly more likely to report consuming fast food, soft drinks and chocolates.
Addressing area-level socio-economic disparities in healthy eating requires addressing the availability, affordability and marketing of unhealthy snack foods, particularly in economically deprived areas.
To estimate the prevalence of and risk factors for vitamin D deficiency in young urban children in Auckland, New Zealand, where there is no routine vitamin D supplementation.
A random sample of urban children. Vitamin D deficiency was defined as serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D <27·5 nmol/l (<11 ng/ml). Logistic regression analysis was used to calculate odds ratios and, from these, relative risks (RR) and 95 % confidence intervals were estimated.
Auckland, New Zealand (36°52′S), where the daily vitamin D production by solar irradiation varies between summer and winter at least 10-fold.
Children aged 6 to 23 months enrolled from 1999 to 2002.
Vitamin D deficiency was present in forty-six of 353 (10 %; 95 % CI 7, 13 %). In a multivariate model there was an increased risk of vitamin D deficiency associated with measurement in winter or spring (RR = 7·24, 95 % CI 1·55, 23·58), Pacific ethnicity (RR = 7·60, 95 % CI 1·80, 20·11), not receiving any infant or follow-on formula (RR = 5·69, 95 % CI 2·66, 10·16), not currently receiving vitamin supplements (RR = 5·32, 95 % CI 2·04, 11·85) and living in a more crowded household (RR = 2·36, 95 % CI 1·04, 4·88).
Vitamin D deficiency is prevalent in early childhood in New Zealand. Prevalence varies with season and ethnicity. Dietary factors are important determinants of vitamin D status in this age group. Vitamin D supplementation should be considered as part of New Zealand’s child health policy.
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