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While the use of formal trauma teams is widely promoted, the literature is not clear that this structure provides improved outcomes over emergency physician delivered trauma care. The goal of this investigation was to examine if a trauma team model with a formalized, specialty-based trauma team, with specific activation criteria and staff composition, performs differently than an emergency physician delivered model. Our primary outcome was survival to discharge or 30 days.
An observational registry-based study using aggregate data from both the New Brunswick and Nova Scotia trauma registries was performed with data from April 1, 2011 to March 31, 2013. Inclusion criteria included patients 16 years-old and older who had an Injury Severity Score greater than 12, who suffered a kinetic injury and arrived with signs of life to a level-1 trauma centre.
266 patients from the trauma team model and 111 from the emergency physician model were compared. No difference was found in the primary outcome of proportion of survival to discharge or 30 days between the two systems (0.88, n=266 vs. 0.89, n=111; p=0.8608).
We were unable to detect any difference in survival between a trauma team and an emergency physician delivered model.
Using a structured instrument, 325 elderly patients admitted to a general hospital for an acute medical problem were evaluated daily in order to detect symptoms of delirium. Patients were scored for ‘hyperactive’ or ‘hypoactive’ symptoms, and then the 125 patients with DSM–III delirium were rated as ‘hyperactive type’ (15%), ‘hypoactive type’ (19%), ‘mixed type’ (52%), or ‘neither’ (14%). There were no statistically significant differences between the groups with respect to age, sex, place of residence, or presence of dementia. These definitions of subtypes should be studied further.
This paper provides a review of research issues and findings on the epidemiology of delirium. Despite the fact that research on this important geriatric syndrome has been conducted for many decades, several methodological issues make it difficult to compare findings across studies. In this paper we first discuss broadly methodological issues related to diagnosis, case-finding, and populations studied. We next review data on the occurrence and consequences of the syndrome. A discussion of the design and preliminary results of the Commonwealth-Harvard Study of Delirium in Elderly Hospitalized Patients documents both how we responded to the methodological issues outlined and how these choices influenced our findings. We conclude with a discussion of the needs for further research on the epidemiology of delirium.
Over the past several decades, numerous investigators have studied the syndrome of delirium. Researchers have relied on a number of different case finding methods to detect the syndrome. This paper provides an overview of instruments used in studies of delirium. We assess the validity and reliability of these instruments and compare the advantages and disadvantages of the different methods. We then present the rationale for the development of the Delirium Symptom Interview, an instrument constructed for use in the Commonwealth-Harvard Study of delirium in elderly hospitalized patients.
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