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Moral reasoning and decision making help guide behavior and facilitate interpersonal relationships. Accounts of morality that position commonsense psychology as the foundation of moral development, (i.e., rationalist theories) have dominated research in morality in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Given the well-documented differences in commonsense psychology among autistic individuals, researchers have investigated whether the development and execution of moral judgement and reasoning differs in this population compared with neurotypical individuals. In light of the diverse findings of investigations of moral development and reasoning in ASD, a summation and critical evaluation of the literature could help make sense of what is known about this important social-cognitive skill in ASD. To that end, we conducted a systematic review of the literature investigating moral decision making among autistic children and adults. Our search identified 29 studies. In this review, we synthesize the research in the area and provide suggestions for future research. Such research could include the application of an alternative theoretical framework to studying morality in autism spectrum disorder that does not assume a deficits-based perspective.
We present three new analyses of existing data from past fieldwork at Teotihuacan. First, we confirm and refine the wealth-based housing typology of Millon's Teotihuacan Mapping Project (TMP). Second, we analyze the spatial configurations of excavated compounds, using network methods to identify the size and layout of individual dwellings within walled compounds. Third, we use those results to generate the first population estimate for the city based on measurements from the TMP map. We extrapolate the average sizes of dwellings from excavated compounds to the entire sample of mapped residences as depicted on the TMP map of the city. We generate a range of population estimates, of which we suggest that 100,000 persons is the most reasonable estimate for the Xolalpan-Metepec population of Teotihuacan. These analyses show that legacy data from fieldwork long past can be used to answer research questions that are relevant and important today.
The majority of lambs in the United States are born from late winter to early spring and pregnant ewes are generally sheared in the last third of pregnancy. Although there are benefits to shearing before parturition, shorn animals may be more vulnerable to the cold, highly variable climatic conditions associated with these seasons. The objective of this study was to determine if late gestation shearing induces differences in individual BW, dry matter intake (DMI) and plasma metabolite concentration of finewool ewes managed outdoors during winter. Thirty-six mature, pregnant Rambouillet ewes (3.8±0.45 years; 76.8±11.4 kg) were managed in a drylot with ad libitum access to pelleted alfalfa in bunks capable of measuring individual daily DMI. The treatment group consisted of ewes sheared at ~5 weeks before the estimated parturition date (shorn; n=18). Unshorn ewes (n=18) remained in full fleece throughout the experiment and were shorn on the last day of the experiment ~2 weeks before the estimated parturition date. Blood was collected on days 0 (before shearing shorn group), 7, 14 and 21 (before shearing unshorn group) of the trial, and plasma was isolated and analyzed for non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA), β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) and glucose (GLU) concentrations. There was no effect of shearing on ewe DMI or BW during the trial (P⩾0.35). Plasma NEFA and GLU concentrations were similar (P⩾0.36) between shearing groups, though plasma BHB concentration was 103.7 μmol/l greater (24.1%; P<0.01) in unshorn ewes. Lamb BW at birth was not affected (P=0.30) by ewe shearing treatment. Under conditions of this study, no differences in economically important aspects of sheep production were observed between shorn and unshorn pregnant ewes.
The current use of antibiotics in weaner pig diets is likely to be banned from 2006, and alternatives are sought to improve growth and health status of weaner pigs. Hops (Humulus lupulus L.) are mainly known from the brewing industry, but they are also known for their antimicrobial activity and antioxidant properties (Stevens et al., 1998). Hops may be a suitable alternative to antimicrobial growth promoters, particularly when pigs are not able to maximise their growth potential, for example when fed low density rations. The objective of the trial was to investigate the effects of hops on newly weaned piglets on growth performance, liver function and microbiology in diets of different nutrient density.
Pharyngoesophageal diverticula have many subtypes, with Zenker's diverticulum being the most common. First described in 1983, a Killian–Jamieson diverticulum is an outpouching in the anterolateral wall at the pharyngoesophageal junction. This is located inferiorly to the cricopharyngeus muscle, unlike Zenker's diverticula which occur superiorly. Killian–Jamieson diverticula are rare and are commonly misdiagnosed as Zenker's diverticula. Less than 30 reports of Killian–Jamieson diverticula have been described in the literature.
A 69-year-old man presented with a 2-year symptomatic history, and was found to have simultaneous Zenker's diverticulum and Killian–Jamieson diverticulum. He was treated successfully with open surgical excision of both pouches.
Zenker's diverticulum and Killian–Jamieson diverticulum are diagnosed using radiological studies and endoscopy. Their differentiation is important, as surgical management differs. This paper reviews the literature on Killian–Jamieson diverticula and the management options available.
Of all the social sciences, social policy is one of the most obviously policy-orientated. One might, therefore, expect a research and funding agenda which prioritises and rewards policy relevance to garner an enthusiastic response among social policy scholars. Yet, the social policy response to the way in which major funders and the Research Excellence Framework (REF) are now prioritising ‘impact’ has been remarkably muted. Elsewhere in the social sciences, ‘research impact’ is being widely debated and a wealth of concerns about the way in which this agenda is being pursued are being articulated. Here, we argue there is an urgent need for social policy academics to join this debate. First, we employ interviews with academics involved in health inequalities research, undertaken between 2004 and 2015, to explore perceptions, and experiences, of the ‘impact agenda’ (an analysis which is informed by a review of guidelines for assessing ‘impact’ and relevant academic literature). Next, we analyse high- and low-scoring REF2014 impact case studies to assess whether these concerns appear justified. We conclude by outlining how social policy expertise might usefully contribute to efforts to encourage, measure and reward research ‘impact’.
To determine if total lifetime physical activity (PA) is associated with better cognitive functioning with aging and if cerebrovascular function mediates this association. A sample of 226 (52.2% female) community dwelling middle-aged and older adults (66.5±6.4 years) in the Brain in Motion Study, completed the Lifetime Total Physical Activity Questionnaire and underwent neuropsychological and cerebrovascular blood flow testing. Multiple robust linear regressions were used to model the associations between lifetime PA and global cognition after adjusting for age, sex, North American Adult Reading Test results (i.e., an estimate of premorbid intellectual ability), maximal aerobic capacity, body mass index and interactions between age, sex, and lifetime PA. Mediation analysis assessed the effect of cerebrovascular measures on the association between lifetime PA and global cognition. Post hoc analyses assessed past year PA and current fitness levels relation to global cognition and cerebrovascular measures. Better global cognitive performance was associated with higher lifetime PA (p=.045), recreational PA (p=.021), and vigorous intensity PA (p=.004), PA between the ages of 0 and 20 years (p=.036), and between the ages of 21 and 35 years (p<.0001). Cerebrovascular measures did not mediate the association between PA and global cognition scores (p>.5), but partially mediated the relation between current fitness and global cognition. This study revealed significant associations between higher levels of PA (i.e., total lifetime, recreational, vigorous PA, and past year) and better cognitive function in later life. Current fitness levels relation to cognitive function may be partially mediated through current cerebrovascular function. (JINS, 2015, 21, 816–830)
In 1988 an area of 12,000 m2 in Quarry 2 at Boxgrove, West Sussex, was identified as being under threat front gravel and sand extraction. It was decided to sample the threatened area in 1989 with a series of 6 m2 test pits. The results of this survey identified two areas that merited further investigation, and area excavations were carried out at Quarry 2/C and Quarry 2/D in 1990 and 1991 respectively. These concentrated on the main Pleistocene landsurface (Unit 4c) and revealed spreads of knapping debris associated with the production of flint handaxes. Two test pits and area Q2/C produced handaxes, over 90% of which had tranchet sharpening at the distal end. A small amount of core reduction and only a few flake tools were found: these were all from Quarry 2/C. Faunal remains were located in the northern part of the excavations where Unit 4c had a calcareous cover. In Quarry 2/C the bones of C. elaphus and Bison sp. exhibited traces of human modification.
The project employed two methods of artefact retrieval: direct excavation in metre squares and bulk sieving of units within them. Comparison of the results from these methods suggests that, when on-site time is limited, the integration of these methods is a valid technique in both qualitative and quantitative terms for data recovery. The excavated areas are interpreted as a tool-sharpening and butchery site that may have been a fixed and known locale in the landscape (Q2/C), and a location on the periphery of an area of intensive knapping reduction (Q2/D). Sedimentological and microfaunal analyses demonstrate that Unit 4c was formed as a soil in the top of a marine-lagoonal silt, the pedogenic processes being similar to those observed after draining Dutch polder lakes. The palaeoenvironment is interpreted as an area of open grassland with some shrub and bush vegetation. In places the surface of the soil supported small ephemeral pools and flashes. This area of grassland is seen as a corridor for herds of ungulates moving east and west between the sea to the south and the relict cliff and wooded downland block to the north. Within this corridor these herds were preyed upon by various carnivores, and hominids.
The temperate sediments at Boxgrove were deposited in the later part of the Cromerian Complex and immediately pre-date the Anglian Cold Stage; they are therefore around 500,000 years old. The archaeological material from these and overlying cold stage deposits is broadly contemporary with that at High Lodge, Suffolk and Waverley Wood, Warwickshire.
Multimorbidity - the co-occurrence of two or more long-term conditions in an individual - is highly relevant to psychiatry. Changes to training and a more integrated model of psychiatric and physical healthcare are needed in the future if we are to improve the long-term health of our patients.
Zirconates and titanates, based on the nominal baseline composition developed for the Plutonium Immobilization Project (PIP), have been prepared with and without process impurities. The titanates form pyrochlore as the major phase and the zirconates form a defectfluorite. Little, if any, of each impurity is accommodated in the defect-fluorite and powellite, kimzeyite, a spinel and a silicate glass appear as extra phases in this ceramic. In the titanates the pyrochlore incorporates more impurities, with the remainder being accomodated in zirconolite and a small amount of silicate glass. At extremly high levels of impurities, traces of magnetoplumbite, perovskite, and loveringite were found. The defect-fluorite zirconate phase is more radiation damage resistant than the titanate pyrochlore, though the secondary phases in the zirconate will reduce the radiation damage resistance of zirconate monoliths. To produce a dense product the oxide-route zirconate required sintering temperatures of about 1550°C, 200°C higher than that required for the titanate. Silicate impurities reduce the sintering temperatures.
In the fusion irradiation environment, helium created by transmutation will play an important role in the response of structural materials to neutron radiation damage. Recently we have developed a new 3-body potential to describe the Fe–He interaction in an Fe matrix. We have used this potential to investigate the equilibrium state of He bubbles embedded into the bcc Fe matrix. We have investigated bubble size, He content and temperature effects. It was found that the equilibrium He content is rather low and at a room temperature it is ~0.38 to 0.5 He per vacancy for bubble diameters from 1 to 6 nm. At constant bubble size, the equilibrium He/vacancy ratio decreases with temperature increase. For bubbles of 6 nm diameter it goes down as low as ~0.25 at 900K. The results are compared with the capillarity model often used for estimating the equilibrium pressure of He bubbles.
To determine if different methods of evaluating cognitive change over time yield measurably different outcomes.
Twelve cognitively impaired patients with clinically definite Multiple sclerosis (10 relapsing-remitting, 2 secondary progressive) underwent neuropsychological testing (baseline, 6, 12 months). Data was analysed using: t-tests evaluating group differences on individual tests, group differences in composite scores, reliable change analyses at the level of the individual, and comparisons regarding number of tests failed at each time point.
Group t-tests on individual tests yielded no change. When tests were grouped according to theoretical constructs, analyses revealed change in processing speed. Reliable change estimates revealed that 16% of the sample deteriorated. When change was measured with respect to the number of domains affected at each time point, 58% of the sample deteriorated on at least one subtest.
Methodology has a significant impact on interpretation of longitudinal data. In the same group of subjects, traditional group analyses documented no change in individual test scores or change on a single composite score. Analyses of individual results documented change from 16 to 58% of the sample. Advantages and disadvantages of each method were discussed. Findings have implications for interpretation of longitudinal studies.