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Cover cropping is a suggested soil conservation practice widely investigated in cropping systems. Cover crops suppress weeds and often are part of an integrated weed management plan that could lead to reduced herbicide use and possibly reduce the weed seedbank. Winter brassica cover crops are popular in the eastern Washington potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) production region, but in western Washington, the production of brassica seed crops presents disease issues along with the risk of cross-pollination, which limits the use of brassica cover crops. Research for this article was conducted in two trials from 2018 to 2020 and 2019 to 2021in Mount Vernon, Washington, to identify winter cover crops compatible with regional restrictions and climatic challenges in western Washington cropping systems. Treatments including a no-cover control, eight single species (including brassicas, grasses, and legumes), and a grass–legume mixture were investigated. Cover crop and weed biomass production were measured, and percent ground cover for cover crops and weeds by species was estimated. Cover crop biomass and weed suppression varied by year due to variable environments, but annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) and the mixture were most consistent in producing large amounts of biomass and reducing weed biomass and cover in all years. The variability of percent weed cover response to environment was ameliorated when weed cover was normalized within each year’s control.
Inheritance of resistance to diclofop was studied in three wild oat biotypes (designated B, C., and H) from the Willamette Valley of Oregon. Cultivated oat (cultivar ‘Monida’) was crossed, including reciprocals, to three wild oat biotypes. Leaves of each F1 plant were spotted with diclofop as a nondestructive test for resistance or susceptibility. All F1 hybrids were resistant, indicating that resistance is dominant and is under nuclear control. The F2 plants where Monida was the maternal parent were screened with diclofop, and F2 plants of the Monida/C cross were screened with fenoxaprop because the parent C biotype was resistant to fenoxaprop. At lower doses, a 3:1 (R:S) segregation ratio in F2 was observed and at higher doses a 1:3 (R:S) segregation ratio was often observed. The F2:3 families segregated in a 1:2:1 (all resistant : segregating resistant and susceptible all susceptible) ratio when treated with a 1.1-kg ae ha−1 dose of diclofop. This confirms that resistance to diclofop in the B, C, and H biotypes is primarily under monogenic control, with resistance being dominant to susceptibility at lower herbicide doses. At increased doses, susceptibility becomes dominant. Knowledge of the inheritance of resistance may help in the development of containment measures to prevent the spread of herbicide-resistance genes.
Near isolines of ‘Nugaines’ winter Triticum aestivum that differed in height were planted with and without Aegilops cylindrica to determine the effect of plant height on competition against A. cylindrica. The isolines had either reduced height gene Rht1, Rht2, Rht1 plus Rht2, or neither Rht genes and averaged 79, 77, 51, and 101 cm tall, respectively, when grown with or without competition from A. cylindrica. Plants with fewer reduced height genes had the faster rates of height and weight gain, which are important traits for enhanced competitiveness. When growing in competition with A. cylindrica, the shortest isoline allowed the greatest amount of A. cylindrica seed production but did not have the lowest T. aestivum yield. However, when compared to the A. cylindrica-free control, the shortest isoline had the greatest percent yield loss. The tallest isoline reduced A. cylindrica seed production the most, and T. aestivum yield reduction due to A. cylindrica on a percent basis was the least when averaged over 2 yr. When competing against A. cylindrica, the tallest isoline did not always have the largest yield and yield parameters, and the shortest isoline did not always have the smallest yield and yield parameters. There is a cost to the T. aestivum plant to produce extra stem biomass that may reduce yield potential of taller plants and reduce the advantage gained by being taller than the surrounding weeds.
A 1984–1985 and 1988–1989 field study near Pullman, WA, evaluated the effect of two winter wheat planting geometries on the growth of wheat and competition against jointed goatgrass. Treatments included paired and constant row planting geometries of wheat and locations of jointed goatgrass within each geometry. No planting geometry by weed location interactions occurred at any harvest date for plant height, shoot number, leaf area, plant dry weight, or N uptake for either wheat or jointed goatgrass. During the 1984–1985 growing season, N uptake data indicated that by heading, jointed goatgrass had taken up N that had been deep-banded between wheat rows located 25 cm from the weed. Winter wheat yields were not different in the paired-row and the constant row spacing geometry in a weed-free environment. Within years, for both planting geometries, winter wheat yield reduction from weed competition was similar for the jointed goatgrass locations. In contrast, based on jointed goatgrass spikelets produced, wheat grown in paired-rows was more competitive against jointed goatgrass compared to constant row spacing.
Dose-response studies are an important tool in weed science. The use of such studies has become especially prevalent following the widespread development of herbicide resistant weeds. In the past, analyses of dose-response studies have utilized various types of transformations and equations which can be validated with several statistical techniques. Most dose-response analysis methods 1) do not accurately describe data at the extremes of doses and 2) do not provide a proper statistical test for the difference(s) between two or more dose-response curves. Consequently, results of dose-response studies are analyzed and reported in a great variety of ways, and comparison of results among various researchers is not possible. The objective of this paper is to review the principles involved in dose-response research and explain the log-logistic analysis of herbicide dose-response relationships. In this paper the log-logistic model is illustrated using a nonlinear computer analysis of experimental data. The log-logistic model is an appropriate method for analyzing most dose-response studies. This model has been used widely and successfully in weed science for many years in Europe. The log-logistic model possesses several clear advantages over other analysis methods and the authors suggest that it should be widely adopted as a standard herbicide dose-response analysis method.
Our objective was to identify traits in winter wheat important to competitiveness against jointed goatgrass, measured as increased wheat yields and reduced jointed goatgrass seed production. Jointed goatgrass is an important winter annual grass weed that cannot be controlled selectively in winter wheat. Seven cultivars of soft white winter wheat were grown with and without competition from jointed goatgrass over two growing seasons. Measurements of numerous traits of winter wheat and jointed goatgrass were recorded throughout each growing season. The data were analyzed using path analysis with latent variables to determine which traits most enhanced competitiveness. In a drier year, increased rate of height development was important in maintaining wheat yields when wheat was growing in competition with jointed goatgrass. Increased rate of height development also was an important trait in reducing jointed goatgrass seed production. In a wet year compared to a dry year, the number of wheat heads per plant, the rate of water use, and weight gain were positively correlated to maintaining winter wheat yields. Jointed goatgrass seed production in the wet year was reduced overall compared to the dry year, but from the cultivars tested, there were no traits identified that were critical in enhancing this loss of seed production. This study suggests that cultivars with greater height development rates will be more competitive when growing in fields infested with jointed goatgrass.
The first occurrences of wild oat resistance to diclofop in the Willamette Valley of Oregon were reported in 1990. Among eight resistant biotypes, GR50 values for diclofop were 3 to 64 times greater than the GR50 for a susceptible wild oat biotype. GR50 values for other aryloxyphenoxypropionate herbicides varied from 1 to over 100 times greater than a susceptible biotype. Only one resistant biotype was resistant to cyclohexanedione herbicides, and this was only a three-fold increase in GR50. Except for one biotype that had a low level of resistance to pronamide, none of the wild oat biotypes were cross-resistant to any other commonly used wild oat herbicide. Levels of resistance and cross-resistance did not follow a consistent pattern among biotypes in this study, suggesting more than one resistance trait. There were significant differences in the light use efficiency, height, dry weight, leaf area, and extent and timing of tillering and flowering of four wild oat biotypes studied. These physiological and morphological differences suggest that these resistant biotypes were selected independently. The diversity of resistance patterns and the coevolution of resistance at several locations will add to the difficulty of resistance management
Imazamox-resistant hybrids resulted from a cross between jointed goatgrass and an imazamox-resistant wheat (cv. FS-4 IR wheat). Two imazamox-resistant hybrids were discovered in a research plot where FS-4 IR wheat seed had been replanted from the harvest of an imazamox efficacy study conducted the year before at a different location. These hybrid plants survived imazamox applied at 0.053 and 0.069 kg ai ha−1 in the field and produced seven viable seeds (BC1). This seed germinated, and chromosomes were counted from the roots (2N number ranged from 39 to 54). In the greenhouse, six of the seven plants survived an application of 0.072 kg ai ha−1imazamox, which confirmed that the resistance trait had been passed to these progeny. A large amount of phenotypic variation was observed in the mature BC1 plants. A genetic description of the movement of the resistant gene is proposed based on the case of the gene being located on the D and the A or B genomes. Management strategies to reduce the occurrence of herbicide-resistant hybrids are presented.
Laboratory experiments were conducted to determine the mechanism of resistance to diclofop in two wild oat biotypes (designated ‘B’ and ‘C’ biotypes) from the Willamette Valley of Oregon. Resistance could not be attributed to differential absorption, translocation, or metabolism of diclofop. Resistance was not correlated with membrane plasmalemma repolarization following diclofop acid treatment. Compared to a susceptible (’S') wild oat biotype, acetyl CoA carboxylase from the B and C biotypes showed a 10.3 and 4.5 fold increase in the level of resistance, respectively, to diclofop acid. Cross-resistance to fenoxaprop acid was 5.5 and 7.3 times higher in the B and C biotypes, respectively than the S biotype. Correlation between resistance at the whole plant level and at the ACCase level was good for diclofop and fenoxaprop in the B biotype. For the C biotype, this correlation was not as good. Possible reasons for the discrepancy are given.
Jointed goatgrass is an invasive winter annual grass weed that is a particular problem in the low to intermediate rainfall zones of the Pacific Northwest (PNW). For the most part, single-component research has been the focus of previous jointed goatgrass studies. In 1996, an integrated cropping systems study for the management of jointed goatgrass was initiated in Washington, Idaho, and Oregon in the traditional winter wheat (WW)–fallow (F) region of the PNW. The study evaluated eight integrated weed management (IWM) systems that included combinations of either a one-time stubble burn (B) or a no-burn (NB) treatment, a rotation of either WW–F–WW or spring wheat (SW)–F–WW, and either a standard (S) or an integrated (I) practice of planting winter wheat. This study is the first, to our knowledge, to evaluate and identify complete IWM systems for jointed goatgrass control in winter wheat. At the Idaho location, in a very low weed density, no IWM system was identified that consistently had the highest yield, reduced grain dockage, and reduced weed densities. However, successful IWM systems for jointed goatgrass management were identified as weed populations increased. At the Washington location, in a moderate population of jointed goatgrass, the best IWM system based on the above responses was the B:SW–F–WW:S system. At the Washington site, this system was better than the integrated planting system because the competitive winter wheat variety did not perform well in drought conditions during the second year of winter wheat. At the Oregon site, a location with a high weed density, the system B:SW–F–WW:I produced consistently higher grain yields, reduced grain dockage, and reduced jointed goatgrass densities. These integrated systems, if adopted by PNW growers in the wheat–fallow area, would increase farm profits by decreasing dockage, decreasing farm inputs, and reducing herbicide resistance in jointed goatgrass.
Dose–response analysis is widely used in biological sciences and has application to a variety of risk assessment, bioassay, and calibration problems. In weed science, dose–response methodologies have typically relied on least squares estimation under the assumptions of normal, homoscedastic, and independent errors. Advances in computational abilities and available software, however, have given researchers more flexibility and choices for data analysis when these assumptions are not appropriate. This article will explore these techniques and demonstrate their use to provide researchers with an up-to-date set of tools necessary for analysis of dose–response problems. Demonstrations of the techniques are provided using a variety of data examples from weed science.
Orange hawkweed is a perennial European plant that has colonized roadsides and grasslands in south-central and southeast Alaska. This plant is forming near-monotypic stands, reducing plant diversity, and decreasing pasture productivity. A replicated greenhouse study was conducted in 2006 and repeated in 2007 to determine the efficacy of six herbicides (aminopyralid, clopyralid, picloram, picloram + chlorsulfuron, picloram + metsulfuron, and triclopyr) for orange hawkweed control. Based on results of the greenhouse trials, replicated field studies were conducted at two sites each year in 2007 and 2008 with three rates each of aminopyralid and clopyralid to determine efficacy of orange hawkweed control and impacts on nontarget native vegetation. In the field, only aminopyralid at 105 g ae ha−1 (0.1 lb ae ac−1) and clopyralid at 420 g ae ha−1 controlled orange hawkweed consistently, with peak injury observed 1 yr after treatment. Control with clopyralid was slightly less than that provided by aminopyralid at all observation times, except at Homer, AK, in 2007, where there was a near-monotypic stand of orange hawkweed, and clopyralid did not remove all orange hawkweed plants. Aminopyralid controlled clover (Trifolium spp.), seacoast angelica (Angelica lucida), arctic daisy (Chrysanthemum arcticum), common hempnettle (Galeopsis tetrahit), and willow (Salix spp.) in the treated areas. Other plant species, such as grasses and some annual forbs, recovered or increased following control of the hawkweed. Clopyralid had less impact on nontarget species with most recovering the year after treatment. In a pasture system, where grasses are preferred to forbs and shrubs, aminopyralid has an advantage because it controls a broader array of forbs compared with clopyralid. In natural areas, where the desire to retain biodiversity and the aesthetics of multiple forb species mixed with grasses and willows is preferred, clopyralid will leave greater species diversity than aminopyralid.
White sweetclover is invading the Alaska glacial river floodplains and roadsides adjacent to natural areas, and control methods are needed. Chlorsulfuron, 2,4-DB, clopyralid, triclopyr, and 2,4-D controlled white sweetclover seedlings below recommended rates in the greenhouse. Biomass of established plants in the field was reduced by chlorsulfuron at recommended (17.6 g ai/ha), 1/2, and 1/4 rates and was reduced by triclopyr and 2,4-D at recommended rates (1,260 and 1,600 g ai/ha). Herbicides were more effective at reducing white sweetclover viable seed production in 2007 than in 2006. Only chlorsulfuron at 17.6 g ai/ha (recommended rate) eliminated seed production in both years. Flaming killed first-year plants, but some second-year plants resprouted and produced viable seed. Cutting at the 2.5 or 10 cm height did not control first-year plants because of regrowth, and second-year plant density and seed production was reduced by cutting at 2.5 cm but not by cutting at 10 cm.
In Alaska Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) lands, succession of fields planted with grass and clover to shrubs and small trees is resulting in program compliance problems related to ease of reconversion to crop lands. Standard practice for slowing this succession is mowing every 2 to 3 yr, which does not kill the woody vegetation. A field study was conducted at three sites over 2 yr to determine if 2,4-D (2.2 kg ae ha−1 2-ethylhexyl ester) or triclopyr (2.2 kg ae ha−1 butoxyethyl ester) applied broadcast or 2,4-D (2.2 kg ae ha−1 2,4-D dimethylamine salt) or triclopyr (1.7 kg ae ha−1 triclopyr triethylamine salt) applied with a Diamond Wet Blade™ mower (DWB) would result in longer shrub control compared to mowing. Mowing was conducted at both 15 and 45 cm above ground level and herbicides were applied with the DWB at three rates. Measurements 2 yr after treatment (YAT) confirmed that both herbicides reduced shrub cover about 50% compared to controls. Reduced rates of the herbicides applied with the DWB did not result in decreased shrub control. Grass cover was negatively correlated with shrub cover. Typically, mower height did not alter treatment effects. Treatments had little impact on forb cover and composition 2 YAT, with the exception of fireweed, which was generally reduced where herbicides were applied. Application of 2,4-D and triclopyr does not decrease the frequency of shrub control in CRP lands in Alaska. Use of 2,4-D and triclopyr with or without mowing resulted in no widespread improvement over the current practice of mowing to 15 cm every 2 to 3 yr.
Three models that empirically predict crop yield from crop and weed density were evaluated for their fit to 30 data sets from multistate, multiyear winter wheat–jointed goatgrass interference experiments. The purpose of the evaluation was to identify which model would generally perform best for the prediction of yield (damage function) in a bioeconomic model and which model would best fulfill criteria for hypothesis testing with limited amounts of data. Seven criteria were used to assess the fit of the models to the data. Overall, Model 2 provided the best statistical description of the data. Model 2 regressions were most often statistically significant, as indicated by approximate F tests, explained the largest proportion of total variation about the mean, gave the smallest residual sum of squares, and returned residuals with random distribution more often than Models 1 and 3. Model 2 performed less well based on the remaining criteria. Model 3 outperformed Models 1 and 2 in the number of parameters estimated that were statistically significant. Model 1 outperformed Models 2 and 3 in the proportion of regressions that converged on a solution and more readily exhibited an asymptotic relationship between winter wheat yield and both winter wheat and jointed goatgrass density under the constraint of limited data. In contrast, Model 2 exhibited a relatively linear relationship between yield and crop density and little effect of increasing jointed goatgrass density on yield, thus overpredicting yield at high weed densities when data were scarce. Model 2 had statistical properties that made it superior for hypothesis testing; however, Model 1's properties were determined superior for the damage function in the winter wheat–jointed goatgrass bioeconomic model because it was less likely to cause bias in yield predictions based on data sets of minimum size.
White sweetclover and narrowleaf hawksbeard are nonindigenous invasive plant species in Alaska that are rapidly spreading, including into areas that are otherwise free of nonindigenous plants. There has been concern that native moose could be dispersing germinable seed from these plants after ingestion. To address this concern, a study was conducted involving tame moose at the University of Alaska Fairbanks Agriculture and Forestry Experiment Station, Matanuska Experiment Farm, Palmer, AK. Objectives were to determine if seeds from these two plant species could survive mastication and digestive passage through moose, whether this passage impacted seed germination, and whether seed passage rates were the same as similar sized Cr-mordanted fiber. In this study, narrowleaf hawksbeard seed rarely survived mastication and digestion with only five seedlings recovered from 42,000 germinable seed fed to the moose. About 16% of germinable white sweetclover seed (3,595 of 22,000) fed to the moose produced seedlings. Most of the sweetclover seedlings came from feces produced 2 and 3 d after feeding. In two moose, sweetclover seedlings were grown from fecal material that was passed 11 d after feeding, raising the possibility that seeds could be transported long distances after ingestion. Cr-mordanted fiber passage did not closely follow seedling producing seed, possibly because time in the rumen might reduce seed germination. Once roadsides in Alaska become infested with white sweetclover, moose can then serve as a transport vector of these weeds into river channels and floodplains, which are distant from roads. This information will impact white sweetclover management programs and alert land managers to the potential for other instances of wildlife-mediated seed dispersal.
Bird vetch is a perennial Eurasian plant which, unlike many exotic weed species, can invade low fertility areas that have not been disturbed. It also is common in pastures, woodland, and tall forb communities. Bird vetch is expanding along Alaskan roadsides, in urbanized areas, and in low density forests. A greenhouse study was conducted to determine efficacy of six herbicide treatments applied at reduced rates in 2005 and again in 2006 for bird vetch seedling control. Bird vetch seedlings were tolerant of reduced rates of chlorsulfuron and 2,4-DB; however, complete control was achieved with rates of clopyralid, dicamba plus diflufenzopyr, triclopyr, and 2,4-D that were a fourth to an eighth of the full registered rate. These results will be important for developing effective, low-cost methods for controlling bird vetch in Alaska, especially on the outer margins of infestations.
Any plant not sown from seed is often labeled a weed in improved pastures of New Zealand. Most improved pastures are a mix of perennial ryegrass and white clover but generally are infested with broadleaf weeds. Changes in forage production due to individual weeds were determined using measurements of perennial ryegrass and white clover before and after dairy cattle, beef cattle, or sheep grazing under, near, and far from individual plants of six rosette-forming weed species throughout a growing season. The larger weeds, bull thistle and musk thistle, reduced the amount of forage utilized 42 and 72%, respectively, in beef cattle– and sheep-grazed hill-country pastures. Forage production under and near Canada thistle, hedge mustard, broadleaf plantain, and hairy buttercup in a dairy pasture was greater (136, 140, 178, and 450%, respectively) than in the control areas. Although the dairy pasture was grazed following recommended grazing procedures, our results indicate that this grazing system was not maximizing forage yield potentials of perennial ryegrass and white clover and that these weeds served as an indicator that the pasture was being overgrazed.
We assessed the ability of climatic, environmental, and anthropogenic variables to predict areas of high-risk for plant invasion and consider the relative importance and contribution of these predictor variables by considering two spatial scales in a region of rapidly changing climate. We created predictive distribution models, using Maxent, for three highly invasive plant species (Canada thistle, white sweetclover, and reed canarygrass) in Alaska at both a regional scale and a local scale. Regional scale models encompassed southern coastal Alaska and were developed from topographic and climatic data at a 2 km (1.2 mi) spatial resolution. Models were applied to future climate (2030). Local scale models were spatially nested within the regional area; these models incorporated physiographic and anthropogenic variables at a 30 m (98.4 ft) resolution. Regional and local models performed well (AUC values > 0.7), with the exception of one species at each spatial scale. Regional models predict an increase in area of suitable habitat for all species by 2030 with a general shift to higher elevation areas; however, the distribution of each species was driven by different climate and topographical variables. In contrast local models indicate that distance to right-of-ways and elevation are associated with habitat suitability for all three species at this spatial level. Combining results from regional models, capturing long-term distribution, and local models, capturing near-term establishment and distribution, offers a new and effective tool for highlighting at-risk areas and provides insight on how variables acting at different scales contribute to suitability predictions. The combinations also provides easy comparison, highlighting agreement between the two scales, where long-term distribution factors predict suitability while near-term do not and vice versa.
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