Mayflies (Ephemeroptera) were collected from 35 sites (streams and tundra ponds) across southern Nunavut in 2002–2005. Nine mayfly species were previously reported for Nunavut: Acentrella feropagus Alba-Tercedor and McCafferty, Acerpenna pygmaea (Hagen), Baetis bundyae Lehmkuhl, B. flavistriga McDunnough, B. foemina McDunnough, Diphetor hageni (Eaton) (Baetidae), Ephemerella aurivillii (Bengtsson) (Ephemerellidae), Leptophlebia nebulosa (Walker) (Leptophlebiidae), and Metretopus borealis (Eaton) (Metrotopidae). We add 7 species to this list, bringing the total to 16: Ameletus inopinatus Eaton (Ameletidae), Acentrella lapponica Bengtsson, Baetis hudsonicus Ide, B. tricaudatus Dodds, Heptagenia solitaria McDunnough (Heptageniidae), Rhithrogena jejuna Eaton (Heptageniidae), and Parameletus chelifer Bengtsson (Siphlonuridae). Based on numbers collected, the dominant mayfly family was Baetidae. Baetis bundyae was the most common mayfly collected, particularly in coastal areas, where larvae were found in permanent and temporary streams and in small or shallow tundra ponds. Larvae hatched 2–3 weeks after ice-out and developed rapidly in 2.5–4 weeks, emerging as adults by early August. All populations containing larvae that were large enough to sex showed female-biased sex ratios, suggesting parthenogenesis. A combination of freeze-tolerant eggs, good dispersal ability, and probable parthenogenesis is probably responsible for the success of Baetidae across the Arctic.