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Morelli, Potosky, Arthur, and Tippins (2017) make a timely and appropriate call for authors to create conceptual models of technology in industrial-organizational (I-O) psychology. We agree with their call, but we believe that Morelli et al. overlooked the contributions of related fields that conduct research on technology in the workplace that are already consistent with their call. For this reason, we briefly detail other fields that commonly study the dynamics of technology and its influence on the workplace, followed by a discussion regarding the place of I-O psychology in the broader scheme of technology research. This discussion can aid future authors in conceptualizing appropriate contributions to the study of technology in I-O psychology as well as identifying whether these contributions benefit other fields. Perhaps more importantly, this discussion can help identify where I-O psychology fits in the broader scheme of technology research and which associated fields may be most readily available to aid in the creation of new models—two questions that currently seem unanswered.
Little is known about the joint mental health effects of air pollution and tobacco smoking in low- and middle-income countries.
To investigate the effects of exposure to ambient fine particulate matter pollution (PM2.5) and smoking and their combined (interactive) effects on depression.
Multilevel logistic regression analysis of baseline data of a prospective cohort study (n=41785). The 3-year average concentrations of PM2.5 were estimated using US National Aeronautics and Space Administration satellite data, and depression was diagnosed using a standardised questionnaire. Three-level logistic regression models were applied to examine the associations with depression.
The odds ratio (OR) for depression was 1.09 (95% CI 1.01–1.17) per 10 μg/m3 increase in ambient PM2.5, and the association remained after adjusting for potential confounding factors (adjusted OR = 1.10, 95% CI 1.02–1.19). Tobacco smoking (smoking status, frequency, duration and amount) was also significantly associated with depression. There appeared to be a synergistic interaction between ambient PM2.5 and smoking on depression in the additive model, but the interaction was not statistically significant in the multiplicative model.
Our study suggests that exposure to ambient PM2.5 may increase the risk of depression, and smoking may enhance this effect.
We present a snapshot of our ongoing investigation of molecular clouds in Clump 2 located in the Galactic Bar region at a projected distance of ~400pc from the Galactic Center. We show that the analysis of the Clump 2 molecular clouds is complicated because of many fore- and background clouds in the line of sight. Of all clouds, IGGC 22 is the most interesting one, showing very high dust column densities, significant high-J CO emission, and, potentially harbors star formations as eluded to by the detection of [OIII] emission.
The first two pulsating planetary-nebula nuclei (PNNs), those of K 1-16 and Lo 4, were discovered by Grauer & Bond (1984) and Bond & Meakes (1990). They are nonradial multiperiodic g-mode pulsators, with typical periods near 25–31 min and low amplitudes (up to ∼ 0.05–0.1 mag). These PNNs have extremely high temperatures (Teff > 100,000 K), and are hydrogen-deficient with high abundances of C and O. Their spectra and pulsational properties are very similar to those of the pulsating GW Vir (PG 1159–035) white dwarfs.
It is generally assumed that quasi-stellar objects represent phenomena taking place in galaxies. There are at least three lines of reasoning that lead to this viewpoint. First, there appears to be a continuity of properties extending from Seyfert galaxies and N systems to QSOs with the differences between the various groups principally a question of the contrast between the luminous central object and its surrounding galaxy. Since Seyfert galaxies and N systems are definitely in galaxies, it is concluded that QSOs must also be in galaxies which are not directly visible because of the high luminosity of the central object. A second argument is based on the result that QSOs do not appear to differ dramatically in abundances of elements from those which are typical of normal galaxies. With the prevailing view that virtually all the elements heavier than helium originated as a result of stellar processes, it would be concluded that QSOs must be associated with galaxies of stars that produced the heavier elements. A third, rather indirect argument is based on the results of Stockton (see his paper in this volume) and others that QSOs are often found in groups of galaxies and therefore are likely to be located in galaxies themselves (guilt by association). But the fact is that direct evidence that QSOs are in galaxies is sadly lacking.
We have mapped cold atomic gas in 21cm line H i self-absorption (HISA) at arcminute resolution over more than 90% of the Milky Way's disk. To probe the formation of H2 clouds, we have compared our HISA distribution with CO J = 1-0 line emission. Few HISA features in the outer Galaxy have CO at the same position and velocity, while most inner-Galaxy HISA has overlapping CO. But many apparent inner-Galaxy HISA-CO associations can be explained as chance superpositions, so most inner-Galaxy HISA may also be CO-free. Since standard equilibrium cloud models cannot explain the very cold H i in many HISA features without molecules being present, these clouds may instead have significant CO-dark H2.
There is currently some debate as to whether hippocampus mediates contextual cueing. In the present study, we examined contextual cueing in patients diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and healthy older adults, with the main goal of investigating the role of hippocampus in this form of learning. Amnestic MCI (aMCI) patients and healthy controls completed the contextual cueing task, in which they were asked to search for a target (a horizontal T) in an array of distractors (rotated L’s). Unbeknownst to them, the spatial arrangement of elements on some displays was repeated thus making the configuration a contextual cue to the location of the target. In contrast, the configuration for novel displays was generated randomly on each trial. The difference in response times between repeated and novel configurations served as a measure of contextual learning. aMCI patients, as a group, were able to learn spatial contextual cues as well as healthy older adults. However, better learning on this task was associated with higher hippocampal volume, particularly in right hemisphere. Furthermore, contextual cueing performance was significantly associated with hippocampal volume, even after controlling for age and MCI status. These findings support the role of the hippocampus in learning of spatial contexts, and also suggest that the contextual cueing paradigm can be useful in detecting neuropathological changes associated with the hippocampus. (JINS, 2015, 21, 285–296)
This chapter focuses on subtle neurological signs (SNS) in schizophrenia and illustrates the principles of their assessment and interpretation among persons with neuropsychiatric disorders more generally. Growing appreciation of the role of SNS has led to the development of multiple, structured instruments to assess neurological impairment. These instruments differ markedly in the specific neurological signs assessed and in their psychometric properties. The most commonly employed neurological scales (The Woods Scale, The Heidelberger Scale, The Modified Quantified Neurological Scale, The Cambridge Neurological Inventory, and The Neurological Evaluation Scale (NES)) and their characteristics are described. NES is among the most widely used SNS scales in schizophrenia research. Schizophrenia and other psychoses are characterized by the presence of psychotic symptoms, which are frequently divided into positive symptoms and negative symptoms. Research on neurological signs provides strong evidence supporting the conceptualization of neurological signs as a trait feature of schizophrenia.
ZrO2 and HfO2 and their alloys with SiO2 are currently among the leading high-k materials for replacing SiOxNy as the gate dielectric for the sub-100 nm technology nodes. International SEMATECH (ISMT) is currently investigating integration issues associated with this required change in materials. Our work has focused on the integration of ALCVD deposited ZrO2 and HfO2 with an industry standard conventional MOSFET process flow with poly-Si electrode. Since the impact of contamination by these new high-k materials introduced in a production fab has not yet been established, it becomes very critical to prevent cross- contamination through the process tools in the fab. A baseline study was completed within ISMT's fab and appropriate protocols for handling high-k materials have been established. The integrated high-k gate stack in a conventional transistor flow should not only meet all the performance requirements of scaled transistors, but the gate dielectric film should be able withstand high-temperature anneal steps. Reactions between ZrO2 and Si have been observed at temperatures as low as 560°C (during the amorphous Si deposition process). Various wet chemistries were also evaluated for removing the high-k film inadvertently deposited on wafer backside, and it was found that ZrO2 etches at extremely slow rates in the majority of the common wet etch chemistries available in a fab. A new hot HF based process was found to be successful in lowering Zr contamination on the wafer backside to as low as 1.8 E10 atoms/cm2. The patterning of a high-k gate stack with poly-Si electrode is another area that required considerable focus. Various dry (plasma) etch and wet etch chemistries were evaluated for etching ZrO2 using both blanket films as well as wafers with patterned poly-Si gate over the high-k films. On the full CMOS flow device wafers, most of these wet chemistries resulted in severe pitting in the ZrO2 film remaining over the source/drain (S/D) areas, as well as in the Si substrate and the field oxide. A poly-Si gate over ZrO2 gate dielectric film was successfully patterned using the standard poly-Si gate etch (Cl2/HBr) for the main etch, followed by a combination of HF and H2SO4 clean for removing all of the ZrO2 remaining over the S/D area. This allowed the fabrication of low-resistance contacts to transistor S/D areas, which ultimately resulted in demonstration of functional transistors with high-k gate dielectric films.
The diffusion of boron in ion implanted LPCVD polycrystalline silicon is shown to be dominated by grain boundary diffusion at low and moderate concentrations. The diffusion coefficient is 2 to 3 orders of magnitude larger than its value in crystalline silicon. In preannealed polysilicon, the boron diffusion coefficient is found to be 30% smaller than in polysilicon annealed after implantation. This reflects the effect of the grain size in the diffusion coefficient since preannealed polysilicon has larger grains and smaller density of grain boundaries per unit area.
We have measured the kinetics of roughness evolution during low energy ion sputtering of SiO2 surfaces using in situ X-ray reflectivity. Sputtering with heavy ions (Xe) leads to rapid roughening of the surface that can not be explained by a simple random removal process. Subsequent bombardment with light ions (He, H) leads to an exponential decrease in the surface roughness. These kinetics are explained quantitatively by a linear model that contains a balance between smoothing by surface diffusion and viscous flow and roughening by sputter removal of Material. A curvature dependent sputter yield leads to amplification of a limited range of spatial frequencies on the surface and the formation of a ripple topography.
The cognitive profile of early onset Parkinson’s disease (EOPD) has not been clearly defined. Mutations in the parkin gene are the most common genetic risk factor for EOPD and may offer information about the neuropsychological pattern of performance in both symptomatic and asymptomatic mutation carriers. EOPD probands and their first-degree relatives who did not have Parkinson’s disease (PD) were genotyped for mutations in the parkin gene and administered a comprehensive neuropsychological battery. Performance was compared between EOPD probands with (N = 43) and without (N = 52) parkin mutations. The same neuropsychological battery was administered to 217 first-degree relatives to assess neuropsychological function in individuals who carry parkin mutations but do not have PD. No significant differences in neuropsychological test performance were found between parkin carrier and noncarrier probands. Performance also did not differ between EOPD noncarriers and carrier subgroups (i.e., heterozygotes, compound heterozygotes/homozygotes). Similarly, no differences were found among unaffected family members across genotypes. Mean neuropsychological test performance was within normal range in all probands and relatives. Carriers of parkin mutations, whether or not they have PD, do not perform differently on neuropsychological measures as compared to noncarriers. The cognitive functioning of parkin carriers over time warrants further study. (JINS, 2011, 17, 1–10)