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We describe the motivation and design details of the ‘Phase II’ upgrade of the Murchison Widefield Array radio telescope. The expansion doubles to 256 the number of antenna tiles deployed in the array. The new antenna tiles enhance the capabilities of the Murchison Widefield Array in several key science areas. Seventy-two of the new tiles are deployed in a regular configuration near the existing array core. These new tiles enhance the surface brightness sensitivity of the array and will improve the ability of the Murchison Widefield Array to estimate the slope of the Epoch of Reionisation power spectrum by a factor of ∼3.5. The remaining 56 tiles are deployed on long baselines, doubling the maximum baseline of the array and improving the array u, v coverage. The improved imaging capabilities will provide an order of magnitude improvement in the noise floor of Murchison Widefield Array continuum images. The upgrade retains all of the features that have underpinned the Murchison Widefield Array’s success (large field of view, snapshot image quality, and pointing agility) and boosts the scientific potential with enhanced imaging capabilities and by enabling new calibration strategies.
In the United States alone, ∼14,000 children are hospitalised annually with acute heart failure. The science and art of caring for these patients continues to evolve. The International Pediatric Heart Failure Summit of Johns Hopkins All Children’s Heart Institute was held on February 4 and 5, 2015. The 2015 International Pediatric Heart Failure Summit of Johns Hopkins All Children’s Heart Institute was funded through the Andrews/Daicoff Cardiovascular Program Endowment, a philanthropic collaboration between All Children’s Hospital and the Morsani College of Medicine at the University of South Florida (USF). Sponsored by All Children’s Hospital Andrews/Daicoff Cardiovascular Program, the International Pediatric Heart Failure Summit assembled leaders in clinical and scientific disciplines related to paediatric heart failure and created a multi-disciplinary “think-tank”. The purpose of this manuscript is to summarise the lessons from the 2015 International Pediatric Heart Failure Summit of Johns Hopkins All Children’s Heart Institute, to describe the “state of the art” of the treatment of paediatric cardiac failure, and to discuss future directions for research in the domain of paediatric cardiac failure.
Nanocomposites of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) embedded in polyaniline fibers have been fabricated using a one-pot synthesis approach and in-situ polymerization. By using a combination of inorganic acids (e.g. HCl) and camphorsulfonic acid, polyaniline nanostructured fibers of high aspect ratio with diameters of 150 ± 50 nm and several micrometers in length were obtained. These fibers afforded high electrical conductivity of 4.2 ± 0.5 S/cm. Encapsulation of the AuNPs in the polyaniline fibers afforded nanocomposites with high electrical conductivity and dielectric constant of 34.0 ± 0.5 S/cm and 65.3 ± 5 respectively. The morphology of these materials was analyzed using SEM and HRTEM and electronic properties were analyzed using UV-Vis spectroscopy.
Significant new opportunities for astrophysics and cosmology have been identified at low radio frequencies. The Murchison Widefield Array is the first telescope in the southern hemisphere designed specifically to explore the low-frequency astronomical sky between 80 and 300 MHz with arcminute angular resolution and high survey efficiency. The telescope will enable new advances along four key science themes, including searching for redshifted 21-cm emission from the EoR in the early Universe; Galactic and extragalactic all-sky southern hemisphere surveys; time-domain astrophysics; and solar, heliospheric, and ionospheric science and space weather. The Murchison Widefield Array is located in Western Australia at the site of the planned Square Kilometre Array (SKA) low-band telescope and is the only low-frequency SKA precursor facility. In this paper, we review the performance properties of the Murchison Widefield Array and describe its primary scientific objectives.
The Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder (ASKAP) will give us an unprecedented opportunity to investigate the transient sky at radio wavelengths. In this paper we present VAST, an ASKAP survey for Variables and Slow Transients. VAST will exploit the wide-field survey capabilities of ASKAP to enable the discovery and investigation of variable and transient phenomena from the local to the cosmological, including flare stars, intermittent pulsars, X-ray binaries, magnetars, extreme scattering events, interstellar scintillation, radio supernovae, and orphan afterglows of gamma-ray bursts. In addition, it will allow us to probe unexplored regions of parameter space where new classes of transient sources may be detected. In this paper we review the known radio transient and variable populations and the current results from blind radio surveys. We outline a comprehensive program based on a multi-tiered survey strategy to characterise the radio transient sky through detection and monitoring of transient and variable sources on the ASKAP imaging timescales of 5 s and greater. We also present an analysis of the expected source populations that we will be able to detect with VAST.
Numerical simulations were performed to see the effect of geometrical misalignment in pressure driven flows. Geometric misalignment effects on flow characteristics arising in three types of interconnection methods a) end-to-end interconnection, b) channel overlap when chips are stacked on top of each other, and c) the misalignment occurring due to the offset between the external tubing and the reservoir were investigated. For the case of end-to-end interconnection, the effect of misalignment was investigated for 0, 13, 50, 58, and 75% reduction in the available flow area at the location of geometrical misalignment. In the interconnection through channel overlap, various possible misalignment configurations were simulated by maintaining the same amount of misalignment (75% flow area reduction) for all the configurations. The effect of misalignment in a Tube-in-Reservoir interconnection was investigated by positioning the tube at an offset of 164μm from the reservoir center. All the results were evaluated in terms of the equivalent length of a straight pipe. The effect of reynolds number (Re) was also taken into account by performing additional simulations of aforementioned cases at reynolds numbers ranging from 0.075 to 75. The results are interpreted in terms of equivalent length (Le) as a function of Re and misalignment area ratio (A1:A2), where A1 is the original cross-sectional area of the channel and A2 is the available flow area at mismatch location. Equivalent length calculations revealed that the effect of misalignment in tube-in-reservoir interconnection method was the most insignificant when compared to the other two methods of interconnection
In several experiments, faster ions were produced from the backside of
solid targets irradiated by powerful laser pulses. The ion acceleration
was considered due to the negative electrostatic sheath formed on the
backside of the target (TNSA), or to the expansion wave starting at the
backside surface, or to the expansion wave and to its embedded
electrostatic rarefaction shock. In this experiment, ions have been
generated by transferring energy to a controlled amount of mass before the
target become transparent by gas dynamic expansion (controlled amount of
mass mode (CAM)). The targets used were thin transparent disks
causally isolated from the holder to trim down, during the
interaction process, unwanted effects due to the surrounding parts. Two
kinds of target corresponding to a different set of parameters were
designed (LARGE and SMALL). Both targets were conceived to survive, in the
actual contrast conditions, to the low power pulse forerunning the giant
laser pulse, bigger margin but lower performances being assigned to LARGE.
For comparison standard square foils under the same focusing conditions,
were also studied (LARGE-LIKE and SMALL-LIKE irradiation).
This chapter discusses the components of the behavioral phenotype in velo-cardio-facial syndrome (VCFS), namely, the high rates of behavioral and psychiatric disorder seen in VCFS children and adults. It summarizes the principal studies of the psychiatric phenotype in VCFS individuals. The most reliable criteria to determine whether the association between VCFS and schizophrenia is valid should involve: increased frequency of schizophrenia in VCFS individuals, increased frequency of VCFS in people with schizophrenia and susceptibility locus for schizophrenia should map to 22q11.2. A major goal of psychiatric and especially schizophrenia research over the past three decades has been the identification of precursor symptoms and areas of dysfunction in children and adolescents which precede the later development of major psychiatric disorder in adults. Difficult behaviors seen in children with VCFS can be approached using behavioral modification techniques including the use of token economies and reward schemes.
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