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Crisis resolution teams (CRTs) offer brief, intensive home treatment for people experiencing mental health crisis. CRT implementation is highly variable; positive trial outcomes have not been reproduced in scaled-up CRT care.
To evaluate a 1-year programme to improve CRTs’ model fidelity in a non-masked, cluster-randomised trial (part of the Crisis team Optimisation and RElapse prevention (CORE) research programme, trial registration number: ISRCTN47185233).
Fifteen CRTs in England received an intervention, informed by the US Implementing Evidence-Based Practice project, involving support from a CRT facilitator, online implementation resources and regular team fidelity reviews. Ten control CRTs received no additional support. The primary outcome was patient satisfaction, measured by the Client Satisfaction Questionnaire (CSQ-8), completed by 15 patients per team at CRT discharge (n = 375). Secondary outcomes: CRT model fidelity, continuity of care, staff well-being, in-patient admissions and bed use and CRT readmissions were also evaluated.
All CRTs were retained in the trial. Median follow-up CSQ-8 score was 28 in each group: the adjusted average in the intervention group was higher than in the control group by 0.97 (95% CI −1.02 to 2.97) but this was not significant (P = 0.34). There were fewer in-patient admissions, lower in-patient bed use and better staff psychological health in intervention teams. Model fidelity rose in most intervention teams and was significantly higher than in control teams at follow-up. There were no significant effects for other outcomes.
The CRT service improvement programme did not achieve its primary aim of improving patient satisfaction. It showed some promise in improving CRT model fidelity and reducing acute in-patient admissions.
An evaluation of the opioid analgesic tramadol (Zydol, Searle United Kingdom) was carried-out by ambulance paramedics to assess its efficacy in providing pain relief in the prehospital situation.
Type of subjects—Patients suffering severe pain from any cause uncontrolled by other simple methods.
Number of subjects—101 patients received tramadol and 41 patients served as a control. Study design—Random, open study.
Statistical tests—Pain score at scene and on arrival at hospital were compared using Fisher's exact tests (2 sides). Logistic regression analyses also were applied to other factors.
Pain scores improved for 93.1% of the tramadol treated patients and for 44.0% of the controls. A total of 30.7% of patients treated with tramadol complained of nausea after treatment compared with 17.1% before treatment and with 12.2% of the control patients.
Pain was significantly decreased by the administration of tramadol. It was safe with only minimal side effects, the major one being nausea. Suggestions are made for areas of further study.
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