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Barbara Ballard's ‘carry principle’ defines the core elements of the mobile experience: small, personal, communicative, multifunctional, battery operated and always connected (Ballard 2007: 71). These qualities have ensured that for many of us some form of mobile device has become indispensable. Developments in mobile computing have meant that consumer devices are capable of increasingly sophisticated sound processing, leading to the emergence of new forms of mobile music. If this music is looked on as a new sub-genre of folk music, we might be able to put it in the context of live electronic music-making. With this in mind, this article will ask whether the mobile device has the potential to be considered a new folk instrument.
Background: On June 8 and 9, 2008, more than 4 inches of rain fell in the Iowa-Cedars River Basin causing widespread flooding along the Cedar River in Benton, Linn, Johnson, and Cedar Counties. As a result of the flooding, there were 18 deaths, 106 injuries, and over 38 000 people displaced from their homes; this made it necessary for the Iowa Department of Health to conduct a rapid needs assessment to quantify the scope and effect of the floods on human health.
Methods: In response, the Iowa Department of Public Health mobilized interview teams to conduct rapid needs assessments using Geographic Information Systems (GIS)-based cluster sampling techniques. The information gathered was subsequently employed to estimate the public health impact and significant human needs that resulted from the flooding.
Results: While these assessments did not reveal significant levels of acute injuries resulting from the flood, they did show that many households had been temporarily displaced and that future health risks may emerge as the result of inadequate access to prescription medications or the presence of environmental health hazards.
Conclusions: This exercise highlights the need for improved risk communication measures and ongoing surveillance and relief measures. It also demonstrates the utility of rapid needs assessment survey tools and suggests that increasing use of such surveys can have significant public health benefits.
(Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2011;5:287–292)
In 1990 a stone covered pit containing a Trevisker Ware vessel was found eroding from the cliffs at Harlyn Bay and excavated. The vessel contained cremated bone from several individuals with some animal bone, quartz pebbles, and a small bronze pendant. A radiocarbon date on the cremated bone fell in the range 2120–1880 cal bc and is a valuable addition to the small number of securely-dated Early Bronze Age burials in Cornwall with metalwork associations. This early date also makes a major contribution to the debate on the sequence of Trevisker Ware as the vessel, of gabbroic clay, has a band of incised chevron decoration. Lipid residue analysis showed traces of ruminant dairy fat. This paper examines the significance of unmounded burial sites in Cornwall and also assesses the importance of Early Bronze Age burials around Harlyn Bay which have produced an unusually wide range of artefacts.
The business meeting of Commission 45 was held on Friday, 7 August. It was attended by the Vice-President of the Commission (who chaired the meeting in the absence of the President) as well as nine other members of the Commission. Attendance was limited, as usual, by the unavoidable occurrence of parallel sessions.
The dense cores of X-ray emitting gaseous halos of large elliptical galaxies with temperatures below about 0.8 keV show two prominent Fe XVII emission features, which provide a sensitive diagnostic tool to measure the effects of resonant scattering. We present here high-resolution spectra of five bright nearby elliptical galaxies, obtained with the Reflection Grating Spectrometers (RGS) on the XMM-Newton satellite. The spectra for the cores of four of the galaxies show the Fe XVII line at 15.01 Angstrom being suppressed by resonant scattering. The data for NGC 4636 in particular allow the effects of resonant scattering to be studied in detail. Using deprojected density and temperature profiles for this galaxy obtained with the Chandra satellite, we model the radial intensity profiles of the strongest resonance lines, accounting for the effects of resonant scattering, for different values of the characteristic turbulent velocity. Comparing the model to the data, we find that the isotropic turbulent velocities on spatial scales smaller than about 1 kpc are less than 100 km/s and the turbulent pressure support in the galaxy core is smaller than 5% of the thermal pressure at the 90% confidence level, and less than 20% at 99% confidence. Neglecting the effects of resonant scattering in spectral fitting of the inner 2 kpc core of NGC 4636 will lead to underestimates of the chemical abundances of Fe and O by about 10-20%.
The efficacy of cognitive–behavioural therapy for schizophrenia is
established, but there is less evidence for a group format.
To evaluate the effectiveness of group cognitive – behavioural therapy
In all, 113 people with persistent positive symptoms of schizophrenia
were assigned to receive group cognitive – behavioural therapy or
treatment as usual. The primary outcome was positive symptom improvement
on the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scales. Secondary outcome measures
included symptoms, functioning, relapses, hopelessness and
There were no significant differences between the cognitive-behavioural
therapy and treatment as usual on measures of symptoms or functioning or
relapse, but group cognitive – behavioural therapy treatment resulted in
reductions in feelings of hopelessness and in low self-esteem.
Although group cognitive – behavioural therapy may not be the optimum
treatment method for reducing hallucinations and delusions, it may have
important benefits, including feeling less negative about oneself and
less hopeless for the future.
Whilst much good practice relating to research support for rural PCTs undoubtedly exists, little has been published about the processes that facilitate such successful support. This paper outlines the nature of a collaborative venture between a Research & Development Support Unit, HRDNoW, and a Primary Care Research Network, CumbReN in providing research support to three rural PCTs in North Cumbria. In doing so, the paper highlights how research capacity is built through a combination of inputs at an individual and organisational level and looks specifically at the outcomes of this collaboration.
This paper presents the results of fieldwork and archive ‘excavation’ relating to the causewayed enclosure at Great Wilbraham near Cambridge. Initiated in 1975 by David Clarke and John Alexander, the project effectively ceased after one further season following Clarke's untimely death. Combining original data with new results from geophysical and environmental surveys, a reappraisal of the site and its landscape context is offered. ‘The archive provides a context in which to ask how the project might have developed had it not come to such an abrupt end. It also serves as a platform from which to review the assumptions that underpinned the formal approaches to landscape modelling that were so popular in the 1970s and the methodological principles which informed New Archaeology ‘in the field’.
In this paper we report on the quantification of Ge diffusion in strained Si/SiGe (s-Si/SiGe) structures for different Ge content in the SiGe virtual substrate. Using TCAD tools, the diffusivity has been calculated by varying pre-exponential factor and activation energy for Ge diffusion in s-Si and SiGe layers separately and obtaining a fit to the SIMS profiles. We observe an exponential and a linear dependence of pre-factor and activation energy for Ge diffusion in s-Si and SiGe, respectively, which is in agreement with literature. As a result of diffusion, the carrier confinement in thin strained layer reduces and the mobility is affected. Using C-V measurements on MOS capacitors fabricated along with devices, a shift in the flat band voltage has been observed and is attributed to a change in the interface trapped and fixed oxide charge. We observe a stronger effect of the variation of strained layer thickness than Ge content on the change in the flatband voltage. This observation is consistent with an exponential increase in Ge arriving at the interface with decrease in strained layer thickness.
The challenge of achieving maximal dopant activation with minimal diffusion has re-awakened interest in millisecond-duration annealing processes, almost two decades after the initial research in this field. Millisecond annealing with pulsed flash-lamps or scanned energy beams can create very shallow and abrupt junctions with high concentrations of electrically active carriers, but solutions for volume manufacturing must also meet formidable process control requirements and economic metrics. The repeatability and uniformity of the temperature cycle is the key for viable manufacturing technology, and the lessons from the development of commercial rapid thermal processing (RTP) tools are especially relevant. Advances in the process capability require a fuller understanding of the trade-off between dopant activation, defect annealing. diffusion and deactivation phenomena. There is a strong need for a significant expansion of materials science research into the fundamental physical processes that occur at the short time scales and high temperatures provided by millisecond annealing.
Organic and low-input farmers often plant seed varieties that have been selected under conventional practices, traditionally including high inputs of artificial fertilizers, crop protection chemicals and/or water. In addition, these crops are often selected in environments that may or may not represent the local environment of the farmer. An evolutionary participatory breeding (EPB) method emphasizes the utilization of natural selection in combination with site-specific farmer selection in early segregating generations of a heterogeneous crop population. EPB is a combination of two specific breeding methods, evolutionary breeding and participatory plant breeding. Evolutionary breeding has been shown to increase yield, disease resistance, genetic diversity and adaptability of a crop population over time. It is based on a mass selection technique used by farmers for over 10,000 years of crop improvement. Participatory plant breeding programs originated in developing countries to meet the needs of low-input, small-scale farmers in marginal environments who were often overlooked by conventional crop breeders. The EPB method is an efficient breeding system uniquely suited to improving crop varieties for the low-input and organic farmer. The EPB method utilizes the skills and knowledge of both breeders and farmers to develop heterogeneous landrace populations, and is an effective breeding method for both traditional and modern farmers throughout the world.