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Crisis resolution teams (CRTs) offer brief, intensive home treatment for people experiencing mental health crisis. CRT implementation is highly variable; positive trial outcomes have not been reproduced in scaled-up CRT care.
To evaluate a 1-year programme to improve CRTs’ model fidelity in a non-masked, cluster-randomised trial (part of the Crisis team Optimisation and RElapse prevention (CORE) research programme, trial registration number: ISRCTN47185233).
Fifteen CRTs in England received an intervention, informed by the US Implementing Evidence-Based Practice project, involving support from a CRT facilitator, online implementation resources and regular team fidelity reviews. Ten control CRTs received no additional support. The primary outcome was patient satisfaction, measured by the Client Satisfaction Questionnaire (CSQ-8), completed by 15 patients per team at CRT discharge (n = 375). Secondary outcomes: CRT model fidelity, continuity of care, staff well-being, in-patient admissions and bed use and CRT readmissions were also evaluated.
All CRTs were retained in the trial. Median follow-up CSQ-8 score was 28 in each group: the adjusted average in the intervention group was higher than in the control group by 0.97 (95% CI −1.02 to 2.97) but this was not significant (P = 0.34). There were fewer in-patient admissions, lower in-patient bed use and better staff psychological health in intervention teams. Model fidelity rose in most intervention teams and was significantly higher than in control teams at follow-up. There were no significant effects for other outcomes.
The CRT service improvement programme did not achieve its primary aim of improving patient satisfaction. It showed some promise in improving CRT model fidelity and reducing acute in-patient admissions.
We present low-frequency spectral energy distributions of 60 known radio pulsars observed with the Murchison Widefield Array telescope. We searched the GaLactic and Extragalactic All-sky Murchison Widefield Array survey images for 200-MHz continuum radio emission at the position of all pulsars in the Australia Telescope National Facility (ATNF) pulsar catalogue. For the 60 confirmed detections, we have measured flux densities in 20 × 8 MHz bands between 72 and 231 MHz. We compare our results to existing measurements and show that the Murchison Widefield Array flux densities are in good agreement.
We apply n- and p-type polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si) films on tunneling SiOx to form passivated contacts to n-type Si wafers. The resulting induced emitter and n+/n back surface field junctions of high carrier selectivity and low contact resistivity enable high efficiency Si solar cells. This work addresses the materials science of their performance governed by the properties of the individual layers (poly-Si, tunneling oxide) and more importantly, by the process history of the cell as a whole. Tunneling SiOx layers (<2 nm) are grown thermally or chemically, followed by a plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition growth of p+ or n+ doped a-Si:H. The latter is thermally crystallized into poly-Si, resulting in grain nucleation and growth as well as dopant diffusion within the poly-Si and penetration through the tunneling oxide into the Si base wafer. The cell process is designed to improve the passivation of both oxide interfaces and tunneling transport through the oxide. A novel passivation technique involves coating of the passivated contact and whole cell with atomic layer deposited Al2O3 and activating them at 400 °C. The resulting excellent passivation persists after subsequent chemical removal of the Al2O3. The preceding cell process steps must be carefully tailored to avoid structural and morphological defects, as well as to maintain or improve passivation, and carrier selective transport. Furthermore, passivated contact metallization presents significant challenges, often resulting in passivation loss. Suggested remedies include improved Si cell wafer surface morphology (without micropyramids) and postdeposited a-Si:H capping layers over the poly-Si.
We describe appropriate wafer cleaning procedure and surface passivation characteristics of various passivants used for making measurement of minority carrier lifetime (τB ) of very high quality Si wafers. These passivants include: iodine ethanol (I-E), quinhydrone methanol (QH-M), SiO2, and Al2O3. The issues related to the passivation stability and the spatial uniformity for mapping τB are also discussed.
The Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder (ASKAP) will give us an unprecedented opportunity to investigate the transient sky at radio wavelengths. In this paper we present VAST, an ASKAP survey for Variables and Slow Transients. VAST will exploit the wide-field survey capabilities of ASKAP to enable the discovery and investigation of variable and transient phenomena from the local to the cosmological, including flare stars, intermittent pulsars, X-ray binaries, magnetars, extreme scattering events, interstellar scintillation, radio supernovae, and orphan afterglows of gamma-ray bursts. In addition, it will allow us to probe unexplored regions of parameter space where new classes of transient sources may be detected. In this paper we review the known radio transient and variable populations and the current results from blind radio surveys. We outline a comprehensive program based on a multi-tiered survey strategy to characterise the radio transient sky through detection and monitoring of transient and variable sources on the ASKAP imaging timescales of 5 s and greater. We also present an analysis of the expected source populations that we will be able to detect with VAST.
Recently, PSR J0738-4042 has grown a bright new emission component in its average pulse profile. Using data from Parkes and HartRAO, spanning back to the early 1980s, and applying statistical techniques to model the pulse profile shape with time, we have uncovered unexpected long-term variability, which is very well correlated with changes in the spin-down rate. We present these findings in the context of a growing population of radio-variable pulsars with correlated timing irregularities, including the intermittent pulsars, state-changing pulsars and other individual examples.
The electronic and materials properties of two series of wide-bandgap solar cells with Cu-poor CuGaSe2 (CGS) absorbers have been studied, to better understand limitations on the device performance. One series of samples displayed distinct lateral non-uniformities in Cu/Ga ratio, Na content, and thickness, likely due to a limited supply of Se during CGS growth. The second series of samples appeared uniform. The most prominent electronic difference was the presence of a distinct band of near-interface defect states in the more non-uniform set of samples. The device performance did not appear to be limited by defects in the bulk CGS film until the defect density was larger than 2×1016 cm-3. Instead, interface recombination appears to be a significant factor limiting Voc in both sets of samples.
Our research team has used hot wire chemical vapor deposition (HWCVD) to fabricate silicon heterojunction (SHJ) solar cells on p-type FZ silicon substrates with efficiencies as high as 18.2%. The best cells are deposited on anisotropically-textured (100) silicon substrates where an etching process creates pyramidal facets with (111) crystal faces. Texturing increases Jsc through enhanced light trapping, yet our highest Voc devices are deposited on un-textured (100) substrates. One of the key factors in maximizing the efficiency of our SHJ devices is the process of optimization of the material properties of the 3 - 5 nm thick hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) layers used to create the junction and back contact in these cells. Such optimization is technically challenging because of the difficulty in measuring the properties of extremely thin layers. This difficulty is compounded by the fact that the properties of such amorphous layers are substrate- and thickness-dependent. In this study, we have utilized spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) and photoconductivity decay to conclude that a-Si:H films grown on (111) substrates are substantially similar to films grown on (100) substrates. In addition, analysis of the substrate temperature dependence of surface roughness evolution reveals a substrate-independent mechanism of surface smoothening with an activation energy of 0.28 eV. Analysis of the substrate temperature dependence of surface passivation reveals a passivation mechanism with an activation energy of 0.63 eV.
We report on the electronic properties of the state-of the art surface-modified CuGaSe2 solar cells. We compare between the 10.2%-efficient surface-modified and the 9.53%-efficient unmodified CuGaSe2 solar cells. We examined our cells using deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) and drive level capacitance profiling (DLCP). The DLTS data for the modified CGS exhibits minority traps with activation energies ranging from Ec — 0.3 to Ec — 0.6 eV, whereas that for the pure CGS exhibits minority traps with activation energies ranging from Ec — 0.06 to Ec — 0.1 eV (where Ec is the energy of electrons at the conduction band minimum). While varying the filling pulse duration, we observed the gradual increase in the amplitude of the DLTS signal for these states until it apparently saturates at a pulse duration of ˜1s for the 10.2% cell, and 0.05 s for the 9.53% cell. Increasing the duration of the filling pulse also results in broadening of the DLTS signals and shifting of the maximum of these signals towards lower temperature, whereas the high-temperature sides coincide. Using a model that allows us to distinguish between bandlike states and localized ones based on the dependence of the shape of their DLTS-signal on the filling-pulse duration, we relate the electron trap to bandlike states. The DLCP data shows that the 10.2% cell has a lower carrier concentration, a more uniform defect density profile, a larger depletion width, and a higher drift collection length for photo-generated carriers as compared to our 9.53% CuGaSe2 cell. We also recorded the transient capacitance versus time and found that the 10.2% has responded differently compared with the 9.53% one. The transient capacitance decay curves for these two cells are different.
Atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (APCVD) is being studied as an alternative for large-area manufacturing of CdTe thin films. High efficiency research cells have been constructed, but the fundamental materials properties and limitations have not been fully explored. APCVD material is examined with several techniques and compared with close-space sublimation (CSS). Transmission and scanning electron microscopy studies show a similar morphology to CSS CdTe. However high resolution TEM scans show the formation of a disordered layer between the CdTe and CdS, and the removal of defects within some grain structures upon annealing. Cathodoluminescence shows electronic defect states localized to grain boundaries. A large concentration of trap states was also observed with deep-level transient spectroscopy that may correspond to hole traps found in lower amounts in other materials. The presence of traps was also indicated in impedance spectroscopy measurements. The latter studies indicate a high grain boundary resistance contributes to transport.
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