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OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a condition that affects over a million Americans, and despite current medical therapies, the progression of the disease results in impaired generation of internally timed or guided (IG) movements. To address this loss of motor function, previous rehabilitation therapies have focused on remediating the affected striatal-thalamic-cortical circuits (STC), primarily thought to be responsible in generating timed motor patterns. However, given the disease leads to the cell death of dopaminergic cells that are essential for proper STC function, we propose a motor therapy aimed at utilizing a compensatory parallel cerebellar-thalamic-cortical (CTC) pathway, recruited to perform externally guided (EG) movements, in which gait initiation is driven from sensory input. Our previous study has shown efficacy in our novel argentine tango therapy and improves behavioral measures above the relevant MCID threshold, but it has not been established that the CTC are in the causal pathway that are responsible for these changes. Using neural measures from task fMRI, we have begun to characterize networks that have changed and quantify any associations with behavioral metrics. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Patients were randomly assigned to an IG (n=18), EG (n=18), or education contact control (n=14). Participants were assessed preintervention and postintervention for behavioral motor and cognitive measures and neurophysiologically with task based fMRI. In the task, participants performed a foot tapping task under both IG (tap their foot in previously learned rhythm) or EG (tap immediately after receiving a tactile cue on their hand) conditions. The fMRI data were preprocessed using AFNI and registered to MNI standard space. The brainnetome atlas was applied and the average time series of each region of interest (ROI) was used to increase the signal to noise ratio. The activation of these ROI with respect to the stimulus was modeled using GLM, and we estimated the area under the curve during the task blocks. A 1-way ANOVA analysis on these betas were performed between the pre and the post intervention time points and the ROIs that were above a significance of 0.95 were identified and corrected for multiple comparisons. The change in beta in all ROIs for each individual were calculated and then correlated with the changes in the behavioral data, to see which changes in ROI areas matched the best with the behavioral changes. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: The EG group showed significant changes only in the EG task in 2 areas—inferior frontal gyrus and inferior temporal sulcus. Correlating to the cognitive behavioral measures show reduced error from the Inferior frontal gyrus (corr>0.5) best reflect changes in observed. There were no changes to either the STC or the CTC pathways. The IG group showed no changes behaviorally and showed no changes neurally as well. The control group showed no changes behaviorally, but neuronally certain DMN nodes, such as the precuneus and inferior temporal regions showed a significant change for both tasks. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Addressing the damaged STC pathway directly through IG therapy may not be effective. The EG therapy may not be able to enhance the STC pathway. However, the therapy appears to utilize new areas in the frontal regions and correlates with positively with changes in spatial memory and balance tasks. Contrary to our hypothesis the CTC circuit was not upregulated for performance of the IG or EG task, but therapy may have enhanced recruitment of other cognitively engaged areas. The educational control group interestingly showed changes in the DMN network, which has been shown to be linked to attention during tasks blocks.
The environments underneath ice sheets are of high scientific interest. Wireless sensors offer the prospect of sustained, distributed remote sensing in the subglacial environment. Typically, wireless sensor networks use radio-frequency (RF) electromagnetic communications, but these are highly attenuated in wet environments. In such environments, acoustic communications may be more power-efficient. Here we review the literature on acoustic and RF attenuation through ice and other relevant media, and present the results of new experiments on acoustic attenuation in glacial ice. Link budgets for communications from a range of subglacial environments show that acoustic communications are a viable strategy for transmission through water and ice where RF is too highly attenuated to be detected. Acoustic communication at 30 kHz is predicted to be possible through 1 km of glacial ice, using a 1 W transmitter. Such a strategy may be appropriate for shallow ice-stream environments around the Antarctic and Greenland ice sheet margins.
An engineering service project can be highly interactive, collaborative, and distributed. The implementation of such projects needs to generate, utilize, and share large amounts of data and heterogeneous digital objects. The information overload prevents the effective reuse of project data and knowledge, and makes the understanding of project characteristics difficult. Toward solving these issues, this paper emphasized the using of data mining and machine learning techniques to improve the project characteristic understanding process. The work presented in this paper proposed an automatic model and some analytical approaches for learning and predicting the characteristics of engineering service projects. To evaluate the model and demonstrate its functionalities, an industrial data set from the aerospace sector is considered as a the case study. This work shows that the proposed model could enable the project members to gain comprehensive understanding of project characteristics from a multidimensional perspective, and it has the potential to support them in implementing evidence-based design and decision making.
Matthew Wood’s recent article in the European Journal of Sociology is a useful addition to the secularization debate. There is value in studying ways in which religious organizations now attempt to re-enter the public arena and the secularizing consequences of such activity. However, there is no justification for framing that case as an indictment of either Bryan R. Wilson’s original 1966 presentation of the modern sociological secularization theory or the subsequent work of others in the same paradigm. This rejoinder explains Wilson’s apparent assuming rather than demonstrating the declining influence of religious institutions and concludes that his work can be augmented without asserting that he had missed something which fundamentally alters the secularization approach to religious change.
On the afternoon of 30 June 2007, a dark green Jeep Cherokee was driven into the front of the terminal building at Glasgow airport. Security bollards stopped the car breaking through the doors. There was a series of small explosions but the blasts and the subsequent fire were contained within the Jeep. Five members of the public were slightly injured, some hurt tackling the terrorists. Police identified the two men apprehended at the scene as Bilal Abdullah, a British-born doctor of Iraqi descent working at the Royal Alexandra Hospital in Paisley, and Kafeel Ahmed, also known as Khalid Ahmed, a Cambridge student. It was quickly established that the two men had been responsible for a failed bomb attack on London's West End a few days earlier. Ahmed died of his burns. Abdullah was sentenced to thirty-two years in prison.
The initial reaction to the airport attack was shock at what Scots took to be the latest atrocity in a sequence that started with the Twin Towers in 2001 and included the 2005 London tube bombings. But once it became clear that the sole fatality was one of the terrorists, the tone changed quite noticeably. John Smeaton, a baggage handler who weighed into the fight between a policeman and one of the terrorists, became a celebrity, not just for his prompt action in joining the fray and pulling clear an injured civilian, but also for his curt description of his actions: ‘So I ran straight towards the guy, we're all trying to get a kick in at him, take a boot to subdue the guy’.
The Dumfriesshire village of Eskdalemuir sits in all the parts of its name read in reverse: the muir of the dale of the Esk, or to be more precise, two Esks – the White and the Black – which unite at the southern end of the parish and flow via Longtown to the Solway sands. The main valley is a quarter of a mile wide and 500 feet above sea level. It rises on each side of the White Esk to gloomy hills, the bleak uplands where the Edwardian upper classes shot grouse and John Buchan's fictional hero Richard Hannay fled in The Thirty-Nine Steps. In 1949 almost all the land was rough sheep-grazing with each farm having a few fields on the valley floor where grass and corn were grown for feed. The few houses are scattered but maps distinguish between Eskdalemuir, the site of the parish church and the school (which closed in 2005), and Davington, a few miles north.
In the early 1950s James Littlejohn, an anthropologist from Edinburgh, spent the university vacations studying sheep farmers and foresters in the area, which he anonymised as Westrigg. As a site for observing change in Scotland's religious climate, Eskdalemuir does not immediately seem promising. It does have an heroic past, of which a neglected gravestone in a field just north of the village offers a poignant reminder. It reads: ‘Here lyes Andrew Hislop Martyr shot dead upon This place by Sir James Johnstone of Westerhall and Sir John Graham of Claverhouse for adhering to the Word of God’.
A few preliminary words about the history and style of this book may help the reader make sense of it. Having spent much of my life writing rather abstractly about competing explanations of religious change, I wanted to end my career by writing something more concrete. In particular I wanted to keep in more of the observational detail from my research: the stuff that makes field research interesting but which usually gets ditched as that material gets processed into sociologese. The intention was to write a very detailed account of religion in modern Britain but, because there are so many differences in the religious cultures of Scotland, Wales and England that many points had to be made three times in slightly different ways, British Gods became too long and too complex. So I decided to take each part separately. Hence Scottish Gods.
This is not a partisan account. Whether Christianity (or any other religion for that matter) is a good thing is a race in which I have no horse. Readers of drafts of various sections have sometimes objected to my tone but, if there is still anything which offends, it is more likely a result of wishing to lighten what can be a dull subject than a subconscious expression of anti-religious animus. Probably because my day job requires me to hold the attention of large audiences of dozy undergraduates (and a few alert ones), I have developed a by-now-incurable tendency to flippancy.
When Yeshe Losal wanted to publicise Samye Ling's plans to develop Holy Isle as a spiritual retreat and to display various designs for the new centre, he did so with a press conference at the Findhorn Foundation near Forres, on the Moray coast. This was a sensible choice because it connected Samye Ling to an international network of the sort of people who attended spiritual retreats on remote islands. Now one of Europe's oldest New Age centres, Findhorn had its inauspicious origins in the 1962 sacking of three English people from their jobs running the Cluny Hotel in Forres. Peter and Eileen Caddy and their friend Dorothy Maclean moved into the cheapest accommodation they could find: a shabby caravan on a holiday park.
The Caddys and Maclean had a long history of involvement in the English fringe milieu of alternative spirituality, esoteric knowledge, plant spirits and Venusian UFOs. Rosicrucians (or the people of the ‘red cross’) claim access to an ancient body of secret knowledge about the nature of the material and spiritual worlds which supposedly dates from the Middle Ages but which like most of such things is a modern invention. As a young man Peter Caddy joined the Rosicrucian Order Crotona Fellowship, a group barely larger than its name that met in a pub in Christchurch to study esoteric subjects from lectures, plays and correspondence material prepared by their inspired master George Sullivan. Peter also attended meetings at the Pimlico flat of Sheena Govan, whom he married in 1948.
In 1982 John Paul II became the first Pope to visit Scotland. On an unusually pleasant first day of June some 300,000 people, supposedly the biggest crowd ever assembled in Scotland, gathered at Glasgow's Bellahouston Park to attend Mass. During the event, John Paul was offered several symbolic gifts including a pipe banner with the Pope's coat of arms, a piece of Caithness glass and a firkin of whisky. He was also given a Scotland football shirt and a football: presumably in recognition of the former goalkeeping Pope's interest, rather than Scotland's achievements, in the sport. As we will see in Chapter 5, not all Scots welcomed the papal visit but for the Church that organised it, it was a triumphal seal on a century of growth and integration.
Migration often produces a subtle but important shift in the migrant's relationship to his or her faith. In societies with a single shared religion, the faith is carried as much by social institutions and habitual patterns of behaviour as by any individual, with conscious thought, choosing every time to make this or that act of affirmation. Like the rain, it is just there. The migrant can no longer be accidentally or passively religious but must make a positive effort and, because it is rarely a comfortable experience, migration offers good reasons to make that effort. Apart from the hardship which drives them to leave their native lands in search of a better future, migrants often feel adrift and at a loss in an alien environment.