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Education has been characterised as ‘the golden thread that runs through all 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)’. SDG4 (Quality Education) broadens the depth and breadth of ‘education’ to people of all ages, and expands its scope to a lifelong process spanning formal, non-formal and informal settings. SDG4 emphasises quality of educational access, particularly for girls and women and marginalised groups. Literature exploring ‘pro-environment’ behaviour informs our consideration of how progress towards SDG4 might impact on forests, forest ecosystem services and forest-related livelihoods. The concept of ‘pro-forest’ behaviour describes those elements of pro-environment behaviour related to forests; encouraging and enabling pro-forest behaviour is the basis of building a positive relationship between SDG4 and forests. Inclusive education that builds and reinforces positive attitudes to forests, relevant knowledge and competencies, and that helps individuals and communities feel or stay connected to forests will foster and sustain pro-forest behaviours. Progress towards SDG4 will benefit forests if education informs, encourages and enables pro-forest behaviour. This requires that education systems respect, nurture and enable Indigenous and traditional knowledge; promote forest-related Environment and Sustainability Education; strengthen forest-related professional, technical and vocational education and capacity development; and capitalise on the power of both established and new media.
Several wet-processing steps are used in fabricating high-efficiency CdTe/CdS solar cells. These steps can hinder in-line processing; thus, developing an all-dry processing option is attractive for a manufacturing-friendly process. In this study, we systematically modified the baseline process used in our laboratory to replace CdS deposited by chemical-bath deposition (CBD) with sputter-deposited CdS and Cu-doped graphite paste back-contact with Cu-doped ZnTe deposited by radio-frequency sputtering. In addition to CdTe deposited by close-spaced sublimation, we also used conventionally evaporated CdTe. The results show that replacing only CBD CdS with oxygenated CdS deposited by sputtering produces devices with performance comparable to baseline devices if the front bilayer SnO2 is replaced by a Cd2SnO4/ZnSnO alloy. Replacing the graphite paste back-contact with sputter-deposited Cu-doped ZnTe resulted in device performance comparable to baseline devices. Incorporating both dry processing steps gave performance comparable to the devices with sputtered CdS with a SnO2 front contact. We used capacitance-voltage and minority-carrier lifetime measurements to analyze the factors affecting device performance and we present the results here.