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Like many other oceanic islands around the globe, environmental conditions, social circumstances and forces of globalization combine to challenge the sustainability of the Galapagos Archipelago of Ecuador. This paper describes a food-supply system in Galapagos that is mainly controlled by population growth, weak local agriculture, imports from mainland Ecuador and the influence of a growing tourism industry. We use system dynamics (SD) as a modeling technique in this paper to identify the main driving forces operating on the Galapagos food system to create a series of future scenarios and to examine the subsequent implications across the supply system structures. We model the supply side of the food system using secondary data collected from governmental and non-governmental sources. We find that the consumption profile of the local inhabitants of the Galapagos is on average higher than consumption in the Ecuadorian mainland. This fact, plus rapid growth of the local population fueled by the tourism industry, has created a decrease in per capita local food production and an increase on food import dependence that now, challenges the sustainability of the archipelago. Imports are the largest source of food in the archipelago. Approximately 75% of the agricultural food supply was transported from the mainland in 2017. Our model projects that this fraction will increase to 95% by 2037 with no changes in food policy. Moreover, any plan to increase tourism arrivals must be accompanied by a plan to address the subsistence needs of the new population that the tourism industry attracts. Policies to promote local agricultural growth should be central to the development strategy implemented in the Galapagos.
Harvest weed seed control (HWSC) is an Australian innovation, developed to target high proportions of weed seed retained at crop maturity by many major weed species. There is the potential, however, that a reduction in the average height of retained seed is an adaptation to the long-term use of HWSC practices. With the aim of examining the distribution of rigid ryegrass (Lolium rigidum Gaudin) seed through crop canopies, a survey of Australian wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) fields was conducted at crop maturity. Nine sites with medium to long-term HWSC use were specifically included to examine the influence of HWSC use on seed retention height. During the 2013 wheat harvest, L. rigidum and wheat plant samples were collected at five heights downward through the crop canopy (40, 30, 20, 10, and 0 cm above ground level) in 71 wheat fields. Increased crop competition resulted in higher proportions of L. rigidum seed in the upper crop canopy (>40 cm). The increase in plant height is likely a shade-intolerance response of L. rigidum plants attempting to capture more light. This plant attribute creates the opportunity to use crop competition to improve HWSC efficacy by increasing the average height of seed retention. Crop competition can, therefore, have a double impact by reducing overall L. rigidum seed production and increasing seed retention height. Examining the distribution of wheat biomass and L. rigidum seed through the crop canopy, we determined that reducing harvest height for HWSC considerably increased the collection of L. rigidum seed (25%) but to a lesser extent wheat crop biomass (14%). Comparison of + and − HWSC use at nine locations found no evidence of adaptation to this form of weed control following 5 to 10 yr of use. Although the potential for resistance to HWSC remains, these results indicate that this will not readily occur in the field.
Harvest weed seed control (HWSC) techniques have been implemented in Australian cropping systems to target and reduce the number of weed seeds entering the seedbank and thereby reduce the number of problematic weeds emerging in subsequent years to infest subsequent crops. However, the influence of HWSC on ameliorating herbicide-resistance (HR) evolution has not been investigated. This research used integrated spatial modeling to examine how the frequency and efficacy of HWSC affected the evolution of resistance to initially effective herbicides. Herbicides were, in all cases, better protected from future resistance evolution when their use was combined with annual HWSC. Outbreaks of multiple HR were very unlikely to occur and were nearly always eliminated by adding annual, efficient HWSC. The efficacy of the HWSC was important, with greater reductions in the number of resistance genes achieved with higher-efficacy HWSC. Annual HWSC was necessary to protect sequences of lower-efficacy herbicides, but HWSC could still protect herbicides if it was used less often than once per year, when the HWSC and the herbicides were highly effective. Our results highlight the potential benefits of combining HWSC with effective herbicides for controlling weed populations and reducing the future evolution of HR.
Habits are behavioral routines that are automatic and frequent, relatively independent of any desired outcome, and have potent antecedent cues. Among individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN), behaviors that promote the starved state appear habitual, and this is the foundation of a recent neurobiological model of AN. In this proof-of-concept study, we tested the habit model of AN by examining the impact of an intervention focused on antecedent cues for eating disorder routines.
The primary intervention target was habit strength; we also measured clinical impact via eating disorder psychopathology and actual eating. Twenty-two hospitalized patients with AN were randomly assigned to 12 sessions of either Supportive Psychotherapy or a behavioral intervention aimed at cues for maladaptive behavioral routines, Regulating Emotions and Changing Habits (REaCH).
Covarying for baseline, REaCH was associated with a significantly lower Self-Report Habit Index (SRHI) score and significantly lower Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire (EDE-Q) global score at the end-of-treatment. The end-of-treatment effect size for SRHI was d = 1.28, for EDE-Q was d = 0.81, and for caloric intake was d = 1.16.
REaCH changed habit strength of maladaptive routines more than an active control therapy, and targeting habit strength yielded improvement in clinically meaningful measures. These findings support a habit-based model of AN, and suggest habit strength as a mechanism-based target for intervention.
In Australia, widespread evolution of multi-resistant weed populations has driven the development and adoption of harvest weed seed control (HWSC). However, due to incompatibility of commonly used HWSC systems with highly productive conservation cropping systems, better HWSC systems are in demand. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of the integrated Harrington Seed Destructor (iHSD) mill on the seeds of Australia’s major crop weeds during wheat chaff processing. Also examined were the impacts of chaff type and moisture content on weed seed destruction efficacy. Initially, the iHSD mill speed of 3,000 rpm was identified as the most effective at destroying rigid ryegrass seeds present in wheat chaff. Subsequent testing determined that the iHSD mill was highly effective (>95% seed kill) on all Australian crop weeds examined. Rigid ryegrass seed kill was found to be highest for lupin chaff and lowest in barley, with wheat and canola chaff intermediate. Similarly, wheat chaff moisture reduced rigid ryegrass seed kill when moisture level exceeded 12%. The broad potential of the iHSD mill was evident, in that the reductions in efficacy due to wide-ranging differences in chaff type and moisture content were relatively small (≤10%). The results from these studies confirm the high efficacy and widespread suitability of the iHSD for use in Australian crop production systems. Additionally, as this system allows the conservation of all harvest residues, it is the best HWSC technique for conservation cropping systems.
The Recorrido Arqueológico de Coixtlahuaca (RAC) presents period-by-period settlement pattern maps for the valley of Coixtlahuaca in the northern Mixteca Alta. The RAC project made improvements in full-coverage survey methods. We identify limitations and suggest that similar projects in the future need to resolve several management and budget problems. The survey revealed two periods of heavy occupation, 700–300 BC and AD 1200–1520, separated by a long period of lower population. Archaeological and historical data indicate that during the AD 1200–1520 period, and probably earlier, small landholders organized in strong communities managed an intensive agroecosystem, investing in landesque capital. Urbanization was impressive, yet cities were aggregations of communities and barrios. Today local citizens pose questions about how the large prehispanic population could have organized and sustained itself; these questions coincide with anthropological interest in collective agency, property, landesque capital, and collapse.
HWSC systems that target weed seed production during harvest have been in use in Australian crop production systems for over 30 years. Until recently, though, grower adoption of these systems has been relatively low. It is now apparent with the introduction of a range of new weed seed targeting systems that there is renewed grower interest in the use of this approach to weed control. With the aim of determining the current adoption and use of HWSC systems, 600 crop producers from throughout Australia’s cropping regions were interviewed on their adoption and use of these systems. This survey established that 43% of Australian growers are now routinely using HWSC to target weed seed production during grain harvest. The adoption of narrow-windrow burning (30%) was considerably greater than the other currently available techniques of chaff tramlining (7%), chaff carts (3%), bale-direct system (3%), and the Harrington Seed Destructor (HSD) (<1%). When growers were asked about their future use of these systems 82% indicated that they would be using some form of HWSC within five years. Grower preferences for future HWSC use were primarily for either narrow-windrow burning (42%) or the HSD (29%). This very high level of current and potential HWSC adoption signifies that HWSC is now considered an established weed control practice by Australian growers.
Harvest weed seed control (HWSC) systems have been developed to exploit the high proportions of seed retained at maturity by the annual weeds rigid ryegrass, wild radish, bromegrass, and wild oats. To evaluate the efficacy of HWSC systems on rigid ryegrass populations, three systems, the Harrington Seed Destructor (HSD), chaff carts, and narrow-windrow burning were compared at 24 sites across the western and southern wheat production regions of Australia. HWSC treatments were established at harvest (Nov. – Dec.) in wheat crops with low to moderate rigid ryegrass densities (1 to 26 plants m−2). Rigid ryegrass counts at the commencement of the next growing season (Apr. – May) determined that HWSC treatments were similarly effective in reducing emergence. Chaff carts, narrow-windrow burning, or HSD systems act similarly on rigid ryegrass seed collected during harvest to deliver substantial reductions in subsequent rigid ryegrass populations by restricting seedbank inputs. On average, population densities were reduced by 60%, but there was considerable variation between sites (37 to 90%) as influenced by seed production and the residual seedbank. Given the observed high rigid ryegrass seed production levels at crop maturity it is clear that HWSC has a vital role in preventing seedbank inputs in Australian conservation cropping systems.
A large-plot field experiment was conducted at Keiser, AR, from fall of 2010
through fall of 2013 to understand to what extent soybean in-crop herbicide
programs and postharvest fall management practices impact Palmer amaranth
population density and seed production over three growing seasons. The
effect of POST-only (glyphosate-only) or PRE followed by (fb) POST
(glyphosate or glufosinate) + residual herbicide treatments were evaluated
alone and in combination with postharvest management options of soybean
residue spreading or soil incorporation, use of cover crops, windrowing
with/without burning, and residue removal. Significant differences were
observed between fall management practices on Palmer amaranth population
density each fall. The use of cover crops and residue collection and removal
fb the incorporation of crop residues into soil during the formation of beds
were the most effective practices in reducing Palmer amaranth population. In
contrast, the effects of fall management practices on Palmer amaranth seed
production were inconsistent among years. The inclusion of a PRE herbicide
application into the herbicide program significantly reduced Palmer amaranth
population density and subsequent seed production each year when compared to
the glyphosate-only program. Additionally, the glufosinate-containing
residual program was superior to the glyphosate-containing residual program
in reducing Palmer amaranth seed production. PRE fb POST herbicides resulted
in significant decreases in the Palmer amaranth population density and seed
production compared to POST application of glyphosate alone for all fall
management practices, including the no-till practice. This study
demonstrated that crop residue management such as chaff removal from the
field, the use of cover crops, or seed incorporation during bed formation in
combination with an effective PRE plus POST residual herbicide program is
important for optimizing in-season management of Palmer amaranth and
subsequently reducing the population density, which has a profound impact on
lessening the risk for herbicide resistance and the consistency and
effectiveness of future weed management efforts.
Neuropsychiatric Symptoms (NPS) are ubiquitous in dementia and are often treated pharmacologically. The objectives of this study were to describe the use of psychotropic, anti-cholinergic, and deliriogenic medications and to identify the prevalence of polypharmacy and psychotropic polypharmacy, among older hospitalized patients in Ireland, with and without dementia.
All older patients (≥ 70 years old) that had elective or emergency admissions to six Irish study hospitals were eligible for inclusion in a longitudinal observational study. Of 676 eligible patients, 598 patients were recruited and diagnosed as having dementia, or not, by medical experts. These 598 patients were assessed for delirium, medication use, co-morbidity, functional ability, and nutritional status. We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional analysis of medication data on admission for 583/598 patients with complete medication data, and controlled for age, sex, and co-morbidity.
Of 149 patients diagnosed with dementia, only 53 had a previous diagnosis. At hospital admission, 458/583 patients experienced polypharmacy (≥ 5 medications). People with dementia (PwD) were significantly more likely to be prescribed at least one psychotropic medication than patients without dementia (99/147 vs. 182/436; p < 0.001). PwD were also more likely to experience psychotropic polypharmacy (≥ two psychotropics) than those without dementia (54/147 vs. 61/436; p < 0.001). There were no significant differences in the prescribing patterns of anti-cholinergics (23/147 vs. 42/436; p = 0.18) or deliriogenics (79/147 vs. 235/436; p = 0.62).
Polypharmacy and psychotropic drug use is highly prevalent in older Irish hospitalized patients, especially in PwD. Hospital admission presents an ideal time for medication reviews in PwD.
In the autumn of 1874, Austrian popular society seemed ablaze with talk of ice. The Habsburg monarchy's first major polar expedition was returning, and, as the German geographer August Petermann put it, “No field commander, returning home with his army victorious from battle, could be received more magnificently and enthusiastically than this small band of twenty- two men.” The first published narrative of the expedition was released in Vienna around 24 September and had sold out of its print run of forty-five thousand copies by 27 September. This figure, however, is dwarfed by contemporary estimates of the multitude that turned up to welcome the explorers to Vienna on 25 September: around a quarter million, or approximately one-fourth of the city's entire population. Although such figures should be taken with a grain of salt, the festivities that greeted the explorers involved possibly the largest crowds seen on the streets of Vienna between the revolutions of 1848–49 and the mass marches of the Social Democratic Party in support of universal male suffrage around the turn of the century.
Fracking is a controversial practice but is thriving in many areas. We combine a comprehensive data set on local bans and moratoria in the state of New York with local-level census data and spatial characteristics in a spatial econometric analysis of local fracking policies. Some factors, including location in the Utica shale, proportion of registered Democrats, and education level, increase the probability of restrictions on fracking. Extent of local land development, location in highly productive petroleum areas, and number of extant oil and gas wells are among factors that have a negative impact on the likelihood of a ban or moratorium.
Seed production of annual weeds persisting through cropping phases replenishes/establishes viable seed banks from which these weeds will continue to interfere with crop production. Harvest weed seed control (HWSC) systems are now viewed as an effective means of interrupting this process by targeting mature weed seed, preventing seed bank inputs. However, the efficacy of these systems is directly related to the proportion of total seed production that the targeted weed species retains (seed retention) at crop maturity. This study determined the seed retention of the four dominant annual weeds of Australian cropping systems - annual ryegrass, wild radish, brome grass, and wild oat. Beginning at the first opportunity for wheat harvest and on a weekly basis for 28 d afterwards the proportion of total seed production retained above a 15 cm harvest cutting height was determined for these weed species present in wheat crops at nine locations across the Western Australian (WA) wheat-belt. Very high proportions of total seed production were retained at wheat crop maturity for annual ryegrass (85%), wild radish (99%), brome grass (77%), and wild oat (84%). Importantly, seed retention remained high for annual ryegrass and wild radish throughout the 28 d harvest period. At the end of this period, 63 and 79% of total seed production for annual ryegrass and wild radish respectively, was retained above harvest cutting height. However, seed retention for brome grass (41%) and wild oat (39%) was substantially lower after 28 d. High seed retention at crop maturity, as identified here, clearly indicates the potential for HWSC systems to reduce seed bank replenishment and diminish subsequent crop interference by the four most problematic species of Australian crops.
The widespread evolution of multiple herbicide resistance in the most serious annual weeds infesting Australian cropping fields has forced the development of alternative, non-chemical weed control strategies, especially new techniques at grain harvest. Harvest weed seed control (HWSC) systems target weed seed during commercial grain harvest operations and act to minimize fresh seed inputs to the seedbank. These systems exploit two key biological weaknesses of targeted annual weed species: seed retention at maturity and a short-lived seedbank. HWSC systems, including chaff carts, narrow windrow burning, bale direct, and the Harrington Seed Destructor, target the weed seed bearing chaff material during commercial grain harvest. The destruction of these weed seeds at or after grain harvest facilitates weed seedbank decline, and when combined with conventional herbicide use, can drive weed populations to very low levels. Very low weed populations are key to sustainability of weed control practices. Here we introduce HWSC as a new paradigm for global agriculture and discuss how these techniques have aided Australian grain cropping and their potential utility in global agriculture.
The synergistic interaction between mesotrione, a hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD)-inhibiting herbicide, and atrazine, a photosystem II (PS II)-inhibiting herbicide, has been identified in the control of several weed species. A series of dose–response studies examined the synergistic effect of these herbicides on a susceptible (S) wild radish population. The potential for this interaction to overcome target-site psbA gene-based atrazine resistance in a resistant (R) wild radish population was also investigated. Control of S wild radish with atrazine was enhanced by up to 40% when low rates (1.0 to 1.5 g ha−1) of mesotrione were applied in combination. This synergistic response was demonstrated across a range of atrazine–mesotrione rate combinations on this S wild radish population. Further, the efficacy of 1.5 g ha−1 mesotrione increased control of the R population by a further 60% when applied in combination with 400 g ha−1 of atrazine. This result clearly demonstrated the synergistic interaction of these herbicides in overcoming the target-site resistance mechanism. The mechanism responsible for the observed synergistic interaction between mesotrione and atrazine remains unknown. However, it is speculated that an alternate atrazine binding site may be responsible. Regardless of the biochemical nature of this interaction, evidence from whole-plant bioassays clearly demonstrated that synergistic herbicide combinations improve herbicide efficiency, with lower application rates required to control weed populations. This, combined with the potential to overcome psbA gene-based triazine resistance, and, thereby, regain the use of these herbicides, will result in more sustainable herbicide use.
The widespread evolution of resistance in rigid ryegrass populations to the highly effective, in-crop, selective herbicides used within southern Australian grain-crop production systems has severely diminished the available herbicide resource. A new PRE grass-selective herbicide, pyroxasulfone, may offer Australian grain producers a new option for rigid ryegrass control in wheat crops. The efficacy and level of selectivity of rigid ryegrass control with pyroxasulfone was investigated for a range of annual crop species in potted-plant, dose–response studies. In comparison with other currently available PRE herbicides, pyroxasulfone provided effective control of both resistant and susceptible rigid ryegrass populations. Additionally, control of these populations was achieved at rates that had little or no effect on the growth and survival of wheat. This crop was also the most tolerant of cereal species, with triticale, barley, and oat being more injured at higher pyroxasulfone rates than wheat was. In general though, pulse-crop species were found to be more tolerant of high pyroxasulfone rates than cereal-crop species. There were subtle effects of soil type on the efficacy of pyroxasulfone, where higher rates were required to achieve effective control on soils with higher clay or organic matter contents. The ability of pyroxasulfone to selectively control resistant and susceptible rigid ryegrass populations as identified in these studies clearly indicate the potential for widespread use and success of this herbicide in Australian cropping systems.