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Signal detection limit (SDL), limit of detection (LOD), and limit of quantitation of a portable Raman spectrometer were measured for smokeless gunpowder stabilizers, diphenylamine (DPA) and ethyl centralite (EC), in acetone, acetonitrile, ethanol, and methanol. Acetone yielded the lowest LOD for three of four DPA peaks, and acetonitrile yielded the lowest LOD for two of three EC peaks and the remaining DPA peak. When gold nanoparticles were added to the DPA solutions in acetone and acetonitrile, statistically significant changes were observed (DPA peak position, full width at half maximum, and/or total area) and SDL was improved for the majority of all peaks in both solvents.
Environmental rights, also known as the human rights or constitutional rights that are used for the protection of the environment, have proliferated over the last forty-five years. However, the precise levels of protection that they represent has since been a major question associated with this phenomenon. Environmental Rights: The Development of Standards systematically investigates this question by analyzing the emerging standards of environmental protection that are associated with such rights and the way that those associations are becoming formalized. It covers all of the relevant human rights treaties to illustrate how environmental rights standards are emerging in this dynamic area. Bringing together an elite group of scholars, this book discusses significant new insights into the way that environmental rights are developing, the standards of protection that they confer, and the way that standards in the field of environmental rights can potentially be further developed in the future.
This article examines the manner in which ‘macro’ legal analysis can potentially assist in overcoming some of the issues that are faced in the understanding and development of global environmental governance (GEG). It argues that the analysis of law through separate and distinct disciplines – such as environmental law, trade law, corporate law, and human rights law – results in what this article refers to as ‘micro’ legal analysis. As such, it contends that this can have the effect of creating obstacles in the development of coherent and effective legal and policy choices related to the protection of the environment. It illustrates these arguments with examples of practical problems that have arisen from the separation of legal issues in practice and provides the theoretical underpinnings, based on the critique of international lawyers, for the application of ‘macro’ legal analysis. In other words, it argues for a form of analysis that would consider the entire range of relevant legal disciplines in a unitary process. It then provides a methodology for the development and application of ‘macro’ legal analysis in relation to environmental issues. Finally, it considers the potential that this approach could have within the field of GEG and comments on the implications that it could have for the way in which lawyers are trained in the future.
Weber was involved in two major political events in his lifetime, and many minor ones. The best known, most consequential and most discussed is the production of the constitution of the Weimar Republic, which Weber contributed to by writing an extensive newspaper article and serving on the constitutional commission. The second was abortive, but on a larger stage. Although his efforts were without immediate consequences, the event itself was the pivotal, stage- setting world political event of the twentieth century: the Versailles peace conference. Weber contributed to this by writing, or contributing to the writing, of the German response to the Entente on the subject of “The Authorship of War,” the notorious war- guilt clause of the treaty. But the text has received little discussion, despite the fact that the analysis has some commonalities with the article on the constitution and bears on some great themes: leadership and the issue of the Deutsche Sonderweg (the alternative path of German development). One reason for this neglect is the fact that Weber was only one of the four signatories of this text. It was also controlled to some extent by the German Foreign office and the leader of the German delegation. Nevertheless, much of it is clearly his work, and contains some material that qualifies some of the standard interpretations of his political thinking, and opens a new set of questions about his geopolitical thinking.
The text was presented by the German delegation to Versailles, of which Weber was a member. It was rejected out of hand by the victorious Allies, who had negotiated their own account of the question of responsibility for the war. In what follows, I will give the context for the document, for Weber's involvement, and discuss some of the issues relating to the war and its genesis itself – the subject of the analysis in the text. The topic of the origins of The Great War, as it was then known, has a vast literature. No historical topic has been discussed at such length, by so many historians of so many countries and with such inconclusiveness, so the context given here will be necessarily highly selective. Nevertheless, some of the outstanding historical issues relate directly to Weber's interpretation of the war, and I will touch on at least the major ones here.