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Studies of early Southeast Asia focus largely on its ‘classical states’, when rulers and their entourages from Sukhothai and Ayutthaya (Thailand), Angkor (Cambodia), Bagan (Myanmar), Champa and Dai Viet (Vietnam) clashed, conquered, and intermarried one another over an approximately six-century-long quest for legitimacy and political control. Scholarship on Southeast Asia has long held that such transformations were largely a response to outside intervention and external events, or at least that these occurred in interaction with a broader world system in which Southeast Asians played key roles. As research gathered pace on the prehistory of the region over the past five decades or so, it has become increasingly clear that indigenous Southeast Asian cultures grew in sophistication and complexity over the Iron Age in particular. This has led archaeologists to propose much greater agency in regard to the selective adaptation of incoming Indic beliefs and practices than was previously assumed under early scholarship of the nineteenth and early to mid-twentieth century.
Mycobacterium tuberculosis is primarily a pathogen of humans. Infections have been reported in animal species and it is emerging as a significant disease of elephants in the care of humans. With the close association between humans and animals, transmission can occur. In November 2010, a clinically healthy Asian elephant in an Australian zoo was found to be shedding M. tuberculosis; in September 2011, a sick chimpanzee at the same zoo was diagnosed with tuberculosis caused by an indistinguishable strain of M. tuberculosis. Investigations included staff and animal screening. Four staff had tuberculin skin test conversions associated with spending at least 10 hours within the elephant enclosure; none had disease. Six chimpanzees had suspected infection. A pathway of transmission between the animals could not be confirmed. Tuberculosis in an elephant can be transmissible to people in close contact and to other animals more remotely. The mechanism for transmission from elephants requires further investigation.
A-plane (11-20) and diagonal cut (1-102) and (-110-2) surfaces of 4H-SiC have been investigated using atomic force microscopy (AFM), low-energy electron diffraction (LEED), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). After hydrogen etching the surfaces show large, flat terraces. On SiC(11-20) steps down to single atomic heights are observed. On the diagonal cut surfaces steps run parallel and perpendicular to the [-1101] direction, yet drastically different morphologies for the two isomorphic orientations are found. All surfaces immediately display a sharp LEED pattern. For SiC(1-102) and SiC(-110-2) the additional significant presence of oxygen in the AES spectra indicates the development of an ordered oxide. All three surfaces show an oxygen free, well ordered surface after Si deposition and annealing. A transformation between different surface phases is observed upon annealing.
The surface of 3C-SiC(001) single-crystal epilayers grown on Si(001) substrates is well known to be inhomogeneous and defective. Therefore, the control and understanding at the atomic scale of 3C-SiC surfaces is a key issue. We study the effect of hydrogen etching at different temperatures on the morphology of 3C-SiC(001) surfaces by using Nomarksi optical microscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). As-grown 3C-SiC(001) samples have been hydrogen etched in a horizontal hot-wall chemical vapor deposition (CVD) reactor at atmospheric pressure for different times and temperatures. Flat, high-quality surfaces presenting defined atomic terraces were observed within the 3C-SiC grain boundaries after etching at 1200°C for 30 minutes. Higher etching temperatures resulted in surfaces with step bunching and enlarged surface defects. Samples etched under the best conditions have been studied using low-energy electron diffraction (LEED) and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES).
For over three-quarters of a century researchers and practitioners have analyzed rating scale data using methods that assume a dominance response process wherein an individual high on the trait assessed is assumed to answer positively with high probability. This approach derives from Likert's famous 1932 approach to the development and analysis of rating scales. In this paper, we argue that Likert scaling and related methods are misguided. Instead, we propose that methods that have evolved from Thurstone (1927, 1928, 1929) scaling provide a better representation of the choice process underlying rating scale judgments. These methods hypothesize an ideal point response process where the probability of endorsement is assumed to be directly related to the proximity of the statement to the individual's standing on the assessed trait. We review some research showing the superiority of ideal point methods for personality assessment and then describe several settings in which ideal point methods should provide tangible improvements over traditional approaches to assessment.
Although there is no doubt that Likert scaling suffices for straightforward scale development and use, it is important to appropriately model the response process for more complex measurement problems. In this response, we comment on the response process and four applications: assessment of dimensionality, computerized adaptive testing, differential item functioning, and individual differences in responding. In each case, we argue that correctly modeling the psychology of responding is critical.
A recent study of Early Formative Mesoamerican pottery by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) yielded surprising results that prompted two critiques in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. The INAA study indicated that the Olmec center of San Lorenzo was a major exporter of carved-incised and white pottery and that little if any pottery made elsewhere was consumed at San Lorenzo. The critiques purport to "overturn" the INAA study and demonstrate a more balanced exchange of pottery among Early Formative centers. However, the critiques rely on a series of mistaken claims and misunderstandings that are addressed here. New petrographic data on a small sample of Early Formative pottery (Stoltman et al. 2005) are potentially useful, but they do not overturn INAA of nearly 1000 pottery samples and hundreds of raw material samples.
NITROUS OXIDE anaesthesia invades the middle-ear cavity, resulting in a positive pressure within this cavity. It has been suggested that the pressure may be sufficient to force open the Eustachian tube and evacuate fluid from the middle ear. This study examined the possible influence of nitrous oxide on middle-ear fluid. Pre- and intra-operative tympanograms were obtained on 39 children scheduled for myringotomy surgery. Fluid was found in 83-1 per cent of the operated ears while the absence of fluid was noted in 16-9 per cent. It is possible that the nitrous oxide anaesthetic did cause an evacuation of fluid from this latter group of ears prior to actual surgery.
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