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The identity, richness, and abundance of true flies (Diptera) from the nests of three cavity-nesting raptors (Aves) were investigated in northern Nova Scotia, Canada. After fledging, flies were extracted from the nest material using Berlese funnels within an emergence chamber. Thirty-one species/morphospecies from 14 families were collected, including eight new records for Nova Scotia and two new records for eastern North America.
This themed section discusses the conceptual development and related empirical applications of social innovation (SI), a concept acquiring a prominent position in both academia and the world of policy. When SI started being used in the early 1990s relatively few social scientists were familiar with it, mainly those interested in urban policy. Less than two decades later, not only is SI at the heart of the largest public research funding programme in Europe (Horizon 2020), it is also constantly referred to in the discourses of senior level policy makers on both sides of the Atlantic.
Social innovation (SI) is an increasingly prominent but contested issue in discussions of social policy reform. Although not yet a familiar concept, nor widely understood (least of all by policy makers), it has entered mainstream policy discourses. However whether SI marks a significant departure in either theory or in practice, or merely in rhetoric, remains to be determined. This Review Article, and the Themed Section as a whole, aims to set out some of the questions social policy analysts should ask about SI, and to help clarify whether or not it is a significant development which merits attention. The Review begins by considering some of the reasons for the recent interest shown in SI before clarifying the meaning of the concept and outlining some of the different forms SI has taken. This discussion is followed by a consideration of some of the practical and theoretical questions which SI raises for social policy analysis. The Review concludes that social policy analysts cannot afford to ignore SI, but that the most effective contribution the discipline can make is to apply a critical empirical perspective to test the significance, value and impact of SI.
Rapid mental health surveillance during the acute phase of a disaster response can inform the allocation of limited clinical resources and provide essential household-level risk estimates for recovery planning.
To describe the use of the PsySTART Rapid Mental Health Triage and Incident Management System for individual-level clinical triage and traumatic exposure assessment in the aftermath of a large-scale disaster.
We conducted a cross-sectional, comparative review of mental health triage data collected with the PsySTART system from survivors of the September 2009 earthquake-tsunami in American Samoa. Data were obtained from two sources—secondary triage of patients and a standardized community assessment survey—and analyzed descriptively. The main outcome measures were survivor-reported traumatic experiences and exposures—called triage factors—associated with risk for developing severe distress and new mental health disorders following disasters.
The most common triage factors reported by survivors referred for mental health services were “felt extreme panic/fear” (93%) and “felt direct threat to life” (93%). The most common factor reported by persons in tsunami-affected communities was “felt extreme panic or fear” (75%). Proportions of severe triage factors reported by persons living in the community were consistently lower than those reported by patients referred for mental health services.
The combination of evidence-based mental health triage and community assessment gave hospital-based providers, local public health officials, and federal response teams a strategy to match limited clinical resources with survivors at greatest risk. Also, it produced a common operating picture of acute and chronic mental health needs among disaster systems of care operating in American Samoa.(Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2013;7:327-331)
Using behavioral and blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) response indices through functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), the current study investigated whether youths with disruptive behavior disorders (conduct disorder and oppositional defiant disorder) plus psychopathic traits (DBD + PT) show aberrant sensitivity to eye gaze information generally and/or whether they show particular insensitivity to eye gaze information in the context of fearful expressions. The participants were 36 children and adolescents (ages 10–17 years); 17 had DBD + PT and 19 were healthy comparison subjects. Participants performed a spatial attention paradigm where spatial attention was cued by eye gaze in faces displaying fearful, angry, or neutral affect. Eye gaze sensitivity was indexed both behaviorally and as BOLD response. There were no group differences in behavioral response: both groups showed significantly faster responses if the target was in the congruent spatial direction indicated by eye gaze. Neither group showed a Congruence × Emotion interaction; neither group showed an advantage from the displayer's emotional expression behaviorally. However, the BOLD response revealed a significant Group × Congruence × Emotion interaction. The comparison youth showed increased activity within the dorsal endogenous orienting network (superior parietal lobule and inferior parietal sulcus) for fearful congruent relative to incongruent trials relative to the youth with DBD + PT. The results are discussed with reference to current models of DBD + PT and possible treatment innovations.
Access to and engagement with information and communications technologies (ICTs) are increasingly important aspects of social inclusion. This paper draws upon analyses of UK survey data and a review of research on communications and social exclusion published in the UK between 2001 and 2006 to examine the social distribution of access to and uptake of ICTs and to explore key factors restricting the digital engagement of young people from lower income households and communities. It argues that effective strategies to bridge digital divisions in the UK must pay more attention to the social rather than technological barriers which inhibit communications inclusion.
Androgenetic alopecia occurs in men and women, and is characterised by the loss of hair from the scalp in a defined pattern. Determining factors appear to be genetic predisposition coupled with the presence of sufficient circulating androgens. The prevalence of this condition is high (up to 50% of white males are affected by 50 years of age) and, although there are no serious direct health consequences, the loss of scalp hair can be distressing. Knowledge of the pathogenesis of androgenetic alopecia has increased markedly in recent years. Pre-programmed follicles on the scalp undergo a transformation from long growth (anagen) and short rest (telogen) cycles, to long rest and short growth cycles. This process is coupled with progressive miniaturisation of the follicle. These changes are androgen dependent, and require the inheritance of several genes. To date, only one of these genes, which encodes the androgen receptor (AR), has been identified. Of the many treatments available for androgenetic alopecia, only two (finasteride and minoxidil) have been scientifically shown to be useful in the treatment of hair loss. However, these therapies are variable in their effectiveness. Discovery of the involvement of the AR gene, and the identification of other genes contributing to the condition, might lead to the development of new and more effective therapies that target the condition at a more fundamental level.
Occasionally it seems as if it might have been more pleasant to have studied Social Policy in, say, the 1950s. From the fluid and turbulent perspective of the 1990s it appears an era of relative tranquillity and certainty: there were fewer books to read, apparently more certainty of both purpose and means (although it is a sign of our times that there is currently a revisionist debate going on about the reality of the so-called ‘Butskellite consensus’), and generally less to know. It is said that in the thirteenth century Roger Bacon was able to compend all the scientific knowledge of his day in a single work. This has long been impossible even for any single discipline, but at least the latest edition of the Social Policy Review does give the reader a taste of the range and diversity of issues which now characterises the subject.
Using facing target sputtering, crystalline magnetoplumbite-type barium ferrite (BaFe12O19 or BaM) thin films have been prepared in situ at a substrate temperature of 640 °C without postdeposition annealing. Using our facing target sputtering system, BaM thin films grow randomly if they are directly deposited onto Si or thermally oxidized Si substrates. However, deposited onto a sputtered ZnO layer (∼230 Å) on Si substrates, BaM thin films show excellent c-axis out-of-plane texture with a 0.2°c-axis dispersion angle, as indicated by x-ray diffraction (XRD). Cross-section transmission electron microscopy (XTEM) reveals that the textured films epitaxially grow on a transition layer, which is formed between BaM and ZnO. No direct epitaxial relation between BaM and ZnO was observed. This transition layer is identified by TEM and XRD as ZnFe2O4, which, from a structure point of view, reduces the lattice mismatch between BaM and ZnO, and also enhances the c-axis out-of-plane epitaxial growth. ZnFe2O4 is a reaction product of BaM and ZnO, as indicated by both TEM and XRD. After ex situ annealing the film in air at 800 °C, the ZnFe2O4 layer becomes thicker at the expense of BaM and ZnO. The lattice parameters of both BaM and ZnO decreased as annealing time increased.
The stability of BaFe12O19 and BaFe2O4 was studied by the oxygen coulometric titration technique between 700 °C and 1000 °C using a solid-state electrochemical cell. This temperature range is technologically important for the deposition of BaFe2O19 magnetic thin films. The thermodynamic information obtained from the titration measurements was corroborated with structural identification of phases prepared under electrochemically controlled conditions. Accordingly, a section of the Ba–Fe–O ternary phase diagram around the BaFe12O19 composition was constructed in this temperature range. The standard Gibbs free energy change for the decomposition of BaFe12O19 into BaFe2O4, Fe3O4, and O2 is given by the expression ΔG°[J/mol] = 7.23 × 105 −480T. In the oxygen pressure-temperature domain, the thermodynamic stability limits of BaFe12O19 and BaFe2O4 are given by the expressions In[Po2(atm)] = 69.37 −1.04 × 105 T−1 and In[Po2(atm)] = 27.68 −7.12 × 104 T−1, respectively. The stability limits determined here help define the process conditions for the successful synthesis of these phases.
Using facing target sputtering, randomly oriented crystalline barium ferrite(BaFe12O19, BaM) has been deposited onto a Ultra Densified Amorphous Carbon® (UDAC) substrate, producing high quality films in-situ at a substrate temperature of 6400°C without any post-deposition annealing. Cross section transmission electron microscopy (TEM) reveals that the films have columnar structure. A ˜100Å thick interdiffusion layer between BaM and silicon nitride underlayer was observed. Films grown at low oxygen partial pressure have lower saturation magnetization (Ms), that may be caused by the formation of some amorphous phase at the grain boundaries as noticed by plan-view TEM. The existence of the Fe2O3 phase in the BaM was also revealed by electron diffraction.
We have studied the effects of low energy ion bombardment on thin copper films. Evaporated, sputtered and CVD copper films (∼50 nm) were exposed to Magnetically Enhanced (ME) Ar plasmas. The microstructural changes (grain size) in the films were studied using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM).
Grain growth is observed in thin Cu films when the films are exposed to low energy (87 eV) Ar plasmas. The microstructural changes in sputtered and evaporated films are quite significant whereas the plasma bombardment has less effect on CVD films. These changes occur very rapidly and cannot be attributed solely to the thermal effects, especially at low RF power levels (500 W). The initial microstructure of the film has a significant effect on grain growth during plasma exposure.