A survey of 146 fields was conducted to investigate herbicide performance in winter wheat-producing areas of southwestern Nebraska during August and September of 1986. Only 55% of the fields received an excellent rating for weed control and stubble quality; one third rated as unacceptable. Weed control after wheat harvest was improved by planting ‘Bounty 310’, ‘Siouxland’, ‘Vona’, and ‘Centura’ winter wheat cultivars rather than ‘Mustang’, ‘Hawk’, ‘Pioneer 2656’, and ‘Wings'. Fertilizing winter wheat in the fall, planting wheat at the optimum date, high wheat stem density, using a winter wheat-corn-fallow rotation, not spraying herbicides after wheat harvest on days that it rained or air temperature exceeded 35 C, and spraying weeds when they were small also improved weed control in wheat stubble. Nine months after wheat harvest, fields treated with atrazine before July 16 had more volunteer wheat than fields treated later.