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In the USA, western Washington (WWA) and the Alaska (AK) Interior are two regions where maritime and continental climates, high latitude and cropping systems necessitate early maturing spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Both regions aim to increase the production of hard spring bread wheat for human consumption to support regional agriculture and food systems. The Nordic region of Europe has a history of breeding for early maturing spring wheat and also experiences long daylengths with mixed maritime and continental climates. Nordic wheat also carries wildtype (wt) NAM-B1, an allele associated with accelerated senescence and increased grain protein and micronutrient content, at a higher frequency than global germplasm. Time to senescence, yield, protein and mineral content were evaluated on 42 accessions of Nordic hard red spring wheat containing wt NAM-B1 over 2 years on experimental stations in WWA and the AK Interior. Significant variation was found by location and accession for time to senescence, suggesting potential parental lines for breeding programmes targeting early maturity. Additionally, multiple regression analysis showed that decreased time to senescence correlated negatively with grain yield and positively with grain protein, iron and zinc content. Breeding for early maturity in these regions will need to account for this potential trade-off in yield. Nordic wt NAM-B1 accessions with early senescence yet with yields similar to regional checks are reported. Collaboration among alternative wheat regions can aid in germplasm exchange and varietal development as shown here for the early maturing trait.
Several grass and broadleaf weed species around the world have evolved multiple-herbicide resistance at alarmingly increasing rates. Research on the biochemical and molecular resistance mechanisms of multiple-resistant weed populations indicate a prevalence of herbicide metabolism catalyzed by enzyme systems such as cytochrome P450 monooxygenases and glutathione S-transferases and, to a lesser extent, by glucosyl transferases. A symposium was conducted to gain an understanding of the current state of research on metabolic resistance mechanisms in weed species that pose major management problems around the world. These topics, as well as future directions of investigations that were identified in the symposium, are summarized herein. In addition, the latest information on selected topics such as the role of safeners in inducing crop tolerance to herbicides, selectivity to clomazone, glyphosate metabolism in crops and weeds, and bioactivation of natural molecules is reviewed.
“We, the nationals of a big nation, have almost always been guilty, in historic practice, of innumerable cases of violence; furthermore, we commit violence and insult innumerable times without noticing it.”
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Objectives/goals: Describe the process used to develop leveled competencies and associated examples. Discuss the final leveled competencies and their potential use in clinical research professional workforce initiatives. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: The revised JTFCTC Framework 2.0 has 51 competency statements, representing 8 domains. Each competency statement has now been refined to delineate fundamental, skilled or advanced levels of knowledge and capability. Typically, the fundamental level describes the competency for a professional that requires some coaching and oversight, but is able to understand and identify basic concepts. The skilled level of the competency reflects the professional’s solid understanding of the competency and use of the information to take action independently in most situations. The advanced level embodies high level thinking, problem solving, and the ability to guide others in the competency. The process for developing both the three levels and examples involved 5 workgroups, each chaired by a content expert and comprising of national/international clinical research experts, including representatives from research sites, professional associations, government, and industry and academic sponsors. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: The committee developed 51 specific competencies arrayed across 3 levels and examples of each to demonstrate an appropriate application of the competency. The competencies and examples, and potential utilization, will be described. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: The use of competencies in the context of workforce development and training initiatives is helping to create standards for the clinical research profession. These leveled competencies allow for an important refinement to the standards that can be used to enhance the quality and safety of the clinical research enterprise and guide workforce development.
Hyperhidrosis is characterized by uncontrollable excessive sweating, which occurs at rest, regardless of temperature. Symptoms can significantly affect quality of life. There is substantial variation in the secondary care treatment of hyperhidrosis and uncertainty regarding optimal patient management. The objective of the Health Technology Assessment (HTA) was to review the evidence and establish the expected value of undertaking additional research into effective interventions for the management of primary hyperhidrosis in secondary care. Capturing the perspectives of patients and clinicians treating hyperhidrosis was an important part of the research.
The assessment included a systematic review and economic model, including value of information analysis. Patients, dermatologists, a vascular surgeon and a specialist nurse (who set up the UK Hyperhidrosis Support Group) provided advice at various stages, including at an end-of-project workshop, to help interpret results and prioritize research recommendations.
Patients and clinicians considered the key findings of the systematic review and economic analyses to be appropriate. Advisors advocated a trial of botulinum toxin injections (plus anaesthetic) versus iontophoresis for palmar hyperhidrosis. Patients preferred the HydroQoL® tool over other commonly used quality of life tools in hyperhidrosis research.
Hyperhidrosis is characterized by uncontrollable excessive sweating, which occurs at rest, regardless of temperature, and can significantly affect quality of life. There is substantial variation in the availability of treatments in secondary care and uncertainty regarding optimal patient management. A systematic review was undertaken to assess the clinical effectiveness of treatments prescribed by dermatologists (iontophoresis, anticholinergic medications, botulinum toxin injections) and minor surgical treatments (curettage and newer energy based technologies) for primary hyperhidrosis and identify areas for further research.
Fifteen databases and trial registers were searched to July 2016. Pairwise meta-analyses were conducted for comparisons between botulinum toxin injections and placebo for axillary hyperhidrosis. For other treatments data were synthesised narratively due to limited and heterogeneous data.
Fifty studies were included in the review; thirty-two randomized controlled trials (RCTs), seventeen non-RCTs and one case series. There was substantial variation between the studies in terms of country of origin (indicating climate and population differences), interventions and methods of outcome assessment. Most studies were small, at high risk of bias and poorly reported. There was moderate quality evidence of a large statistically significant effect of botulinum toxin injections on axillary hyperhidrosis symptoms in the short to medium term (up to 16 weeks), compared with placebo. There was weak but consistent evidence for iontophoresis for palmar hyperhidrosis. Evidence for other interventions was low or very low quality. Combining the evidence and patient advisor input, we established that further research on the clinical and cost-effectiveness of botulinum toxin injections (with anesthesia) versus iontophoresis for palmar hyperhidrosis would be useful.
The evidence for the effectiveness and safety of treatments for primary hyperhidrosis is limited overall and few firm conclusions can be drawn. However, there is moderate quality evidence to support the use of botulinum toxin injections for axillary hyperhidrosis. A trial comparing botulinum toxin injections with iontophoresis for palmar hyperhidrosis is warranted.
Primary hyperhidrosis has no discernible cause and is characterised by uncontrollable excessive and unpredictable sweating, which occurs at rest, regardless of temperature. The symptoms of hyperhidrosis can significantly affect quality of life, and can lead to social embarrassment, loneliness, anxiety and depression.
The aim of this literature review was to identify the tools used to measure quality of life in studies of hyperhidrosis. Patient advisors provided insight and their perspective.
Studies were identified through searches undertaken in January 2016. The search strategies combined topic terms for hyperhidrosis with a recognised search filter for “quality of life”. All studies that reported measuring quality of life or described a quality of life measure/tool in the context of primary hyperhidrosis were included. The information on the tools and their use in hyperhidrosis was summarized in a narrative synthesis. Patient advisors contributed to the interpretation of the findings.
Infections caused by multidrug-resistant gram-negative organisms (MDRGNOs) have been increasing every year. The objective of this study was to describe the prevalence of MDRGNOs and factors associated with MDRGNOs in patients with spinal cord injury or disorder (SCI/D).
Retrospective cohort study.
Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) electronic health record data from 142 VA facilities were evaluated for 19,642 patients with SCI/D. Multivariable cluster-adjusted models were fit to identify factors associated with MDRGNO.
Gram-negative (GN) cultures occurred in 44% of patients with SCI/D receiving care at VA facilities, and 11,527 (41.3%) GN cultures had an MDRGNO. The most frequent GN organisms (GNOs) were Escherichia coli (28.5%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (17.0%), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (16.0%). Two-thirds of GN cultures were from the outpatient setting, where MDRGNO prevalence was 37.6%. Significant geographic variation in the prevalence of MDRGNOs was identified (South, 44.7%; Northeast, 44.3%; West, 36.8%; Midwest, 34.4%). Other factors associated with an MDRGNO were older age, injury characteristics, comorbidities, specimen type, healthcare setting, and healthcare exposure. Black (odds ratio [OR], 1.58; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.39–1.78) and Hispanic race (OR, 1.58; 95% CI, 1.28–1.95), polymicrobial culture (OR, 2.67; 95% CI, 2.46–2.90), and antibiotic use in the previous 90 days (OR, 1.62; 95% CI, 1.50–1.76) were also associated with having an MDRGNO.
MDRGNOs were common in community and healthcare settings among veterans with SCI/D, with significant geographic variation. Health care and antibiotic exposures were significant factors associated with MDRGNOs. Priority should be given to controlling the spread of MDRGNOs in this special population, including a focus on judicious use of antibiotics.
Sea-ice cores from 11 sites in McMurdo Sound, Antarctica, were collected in 1982 and their crystallography examined. All but one were first-year sea ice. The cores, approximately 2 m long, consisted typically of a thin layer of granular or snow ice (approximately 0.1 m) followed by columnar-grained ice in the top metre and platelet ice in the bottom metre. Salinity and temperature measurements are reported. The columnar-grained ice usually had a strong preferred c-axis orientation in the horizontal plane and also showed a change in this preferred direction with depth in the ice. The mean c-axis orientation, however, usually aligned well with measured or implied currents in the Sound. The platelets were usually aligned with c axis horizontal or close to horizontal, and did not exhibit as marked a preferred orientation as the columnar-grained ice.
We present a re-analysis of the results obtained from a series of measurements on freshwater and saline ice beams under various centrifugal accelerations. The data show a strong influence of beam size, brine volume and centrifugal acceleration on the elastic modulus of ice. The data suggest a transition brine volume at around 9%, which might occur close to the melting point, at which the elastic modulus of ice drops rapidly due to a possible change of brine-pocket structure. Furthermore, for brine volumes less than 9%, there is a negligible increase in the elastic modulus measured under high centrifugal acceleration, but for brine volumes more than 9% the increase is considerable, approaching that measured with freshwater ice. This may be due to necking of brine drainage channels just above the ice/water interface at high centrifugal acceleration. A model of sea ice was constructed based on existing theories of brine inclusions in sea ice, which satisfactorily predicts the observed trends.
Laboratory-grown single crystals, both pure and HF-doped, and pure polycrystals of ice, as well as natural, columnar-grained ice from the River St Lawrence, have been deformed in uniaxial compression at 77 K at strain-rates between 10-5 and 10-3 s-1. Brittle fracture was observed, with stress-strain curves similar to those found for rocks at room temperature. The first cracks appeared at low stresses, ≈0.3 MN m-2, in agreement with theory, but the failure or fracture stress was high ≈50 MN m-2. The ratio of experimental to theoretical strength was o.28. HF doping of the single crystals had no effect at this temperature.
Untersteincr and Nye (1968) calculated the possible future movement of Berendon Glacier, B.C. These calculations are repeated using much improved data and a slightly different method for computing the datum state. The predictions that result are very similar to those found in the earlier work. It is concluded, however, from mass-balance data, that the chance of the glacier rising sufficiently in the next 25 years to be a danger to the mining installations situated near the snout of the glacier is much greater than was previously considered. The sensitivity of the theory to changes in input data is discussed.
Uniaxial compressive creep tests on single crystals and polycrystals of ice at about -10°C under different hydrostatic pressures are described . After creeping under a constant load at atmospheric pressure for some hours, a hydrostatic pressure of the order of 35 MN m-2 was applied and the change in strain-rate was noted. Some hours later the hydrostatic pressure was removed and the test continued at atmospheric pressure. From these changes in strain-rate , an activation volume V was determined from the equation
where R is the gas constant, T is the absolute temperature, P is the hydrostatic pressure and τ is the superimposed uniaxial creep stress. V is negative if E increases with P.
For single crystals, which show an accelerating creep curve, that is the strain-rate increases continuously with time, no sensible activation volume was determined because the strain-rate increased both on the application of the hydrostatic pressure, and on its removal. For polycrystals, application of a hydrostatic pressure caused an increase in strain-rate which gave an activation volume of about - 10 cm3 mol-1. However, on removal of the pressure the strain-rate did not return to its original atmospheric-pressure value implying that steady-state creep had not been reached.
This value of activation volume is in general agreement with two previously published values for creep deformation, but is of opposite sign to the activation volume for dielectric relaxation. Further tests are in progress.
Constant strain-rate compression tests on ice single crystals at temperatures between –20°C and -0.2°C are described. The power-law dependence of yield stress on strain-rate gives a value of n which varies from 1.95±0.04 at –0.2°C to 2.07±0.08 at –20°C. The activation energy of deformation varies with strain-rate, but a mean value of 70±2 kJ mol–1 is obtained, with no indication of any increase close to maleting point,as has been found polycrystalline ice. An apparent work-hardening effect, at strains greater than 15%, is explained as being due to bending of the crystal changing the orientation of the basal planes.