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The challenges to global order posed by rapid environmental change are increasingly recognized as defining features of our time. In this groundbreaking work, the concept of innovation is deployed to explore normative and institutional responses in international law to such environmental change by addressing two fundamental themes: first, whether law can foresee, prevent, and adapt to environmental transformations; and second, whether international legal responses to social, economic, and technological innovation can appropriately reflect the evolving needs of contemporary societies at national and international scales. Using a range of case studies, the contributions to this collection track innovation - descriptively, normatively, and as a process in and of itself - to explain international environmental law's functionality in the Anthropocene. This book should be read by anyone interested in the critical intersection of environmental and international law.
It is well known that radiocarbon years do not directly equate to calendar time. As a result, considerable effort has been devoted to generating a decadally resolved calibration curve for the Holocene and latter part of the last termination. A calibration curve that can be unambiguously attributed to changes in atmospheric 14C content has not, however, been generated beyond 26 kyr cal BP, despite the urgent need to rigorously test climatic, environmental, and archaeological models. Here, we discuss the potential of New Zealand kauri (Agathis australis) to define the structure of the 14C calibration curve using annually resolved tree rings and thereby provide an absolute measure of atmospheric 14C. We report bidecadally sampled 14C measurements obtained from a floating 1050-yr chronology, demonstrating repeatable 14C measurements near the present limits of the dating method. The results indicate that considerable scope exists for a high-resolution 14C calibration curve back through OIS-3 using subfossil wood from this source.