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Basal bark treatment with triclopyr butoxyethyl ester is used to control woody invasive plants, including Brazilian peppertree (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi). However, the ester formulation cannot be applied where standing water is present, which includes wetlands where S. terebinthifolius is found. In 2009, a low-volatile acid formulation of triclopyr was labeled for use in aquatic sites which allows for basal bark applications when standing water is present. This formulation may have utility for controlling woody plants in standing water. However, anecdotal observations of injury to non-target plants following applications during periods of inundation have been reported. To address this, mesocosm studies were conducted to assess non-target injury through triclopyr root exudation or release from the surface of treated stems via flooding. Mesocosms contained S. terebinthifolius as the treated target while sugarberry (Celtis laevigata Willd.), buttonbush (Cephalanthus occidentalis L.), and red maple (Acer rubrum L.) were included as non-targets. In the first study, the pathway of root exudation for non-target injury following triclopyr (34 g L-1) basal bark application was isolated with activated charcoal placed at the soil surface. In the second study, mesocosms were flooded to assess triclopyr release from the surface of treated stems and subsequent non-target injury. Defoliation of non-target species post-treatment was ≤ 8% and triclopyr was detected at ≤ 5 µg L-1 in mesocosm wells when activated charcoal was present. Post-treatment non-target defoliation up to 92%, coupled with triclopyr concentrations in surface waters and wells as high as 4,637 µg L-1, indicated triclopyr movement as a result of flooding. Additionally, triclopyr non-target injury from soil activity independent of flooding was observed. These findings provide limited evidence of triclopyr root exudation but considerable evidence of triclopyr release during flooding following basal bark treatment and support a cautionary approach to basal bark application when standing water is present.
Brazilian peppertree (Schinus terebinthifolia) is an aggressive shrub that infests over 280,000 ha in Florida. Individual plant treatments (IPT) including basal bark and cut stump application with triclopyr butoxyethylester and triethylamine formulations, respectively, have been used for decades. While they are both effective, resprouting can occur, which requires retreatment for control. Recent research on other woody invasive plants has indicated additional non-crop herbicides used in natural areas can be effective with these IPT techniques and therefore, warrant testing on Brazilian peppertree. In 2018 and 2019, basal bark and cut stump studies were conducted at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in natural areas infested with Brazilian peppertree. In the basal bark application studies, we found aminocyclopyrachlor applied at 12 and 24 g L-1 and triclopyr acid applied at 34 and 69 g L-1 each provided 100% defoliation of multi-stemmed Brazilian peppertree individuals with a mean root collar diameter up to 20.2 cm at 360 days after treatment. These were not different from triclopyr ester applied at 96 g L-1. Imazamox applied at 30 g L-1 resulted in 86% defoliation 360 DAT. However, we observed formulation incompatibility when it was mixed with basal bark oil, which may limit its utility. In cut stump studies, we found aminocyclopyrachlor and aminopyralid each individually applied at 6, 12, and 24 g L-1, resulted in stump mortality that was not different from the commercial standard triclopyr amine applied at 180 g L-1. Similar results were found for a triclopyr acid formulation applied at 86 and 172 g L-1 and imazamox applied at 60 g L-1. For both treatment techniques, we found that alternative treatments provided control at lower herbicide concentrations than triclopyr ester and amine commercial standards. These results advance our understanding of IPT and expand access to additional effective herbicide options for Brazilian peppertree management.
Brazilian peppertree (Schinus terebinthifolia Raddi) is a multistemmed shrub or small tree from South America that is invasive in Florida, Texas, Hawaii, and Australia. It forms multistemmed trunks with spreading branches that create dense thickets. State agencies in Florida manage it at annual costs of over $3 million, and individual plant treatment (IPT) techniques are widely used for control. Recent research testing novel hack and squirt approaches with aminopyralid and aminocyclopyrachlor and basal bark treatment with a new triclopyr formulation has shown these treatments are highly effective. However, they have not been evaluated at larger scales, which would be useful to land managers. Therefore, our objective was to compare the reduced hack and squirt technique using aminopyralid and aminocyclopyrachlor herbicides to basal bark treatment with triclopyr on a field scale. We used two contractor crews to apply treatments to twenty-four 0.2-ha plots. Treatments included aminocyclopyrachlor (120 g L−1) or aminopyralid (120 g L−1) applied with the reduced hack and squirt technique and triclopyr ester (108 g L−1) and triclopyr acid (34 g L−1) formulations applied with two basal bark treatment techniques. We confirmed that reduced hack and squirt significantly reduced the amount of herbicide and carrier applied compared with the basal bark treatments. By 540 d after treatment, aminocyclopyrachlor more effectively controlled S. terebinthifolia than aminopyralid with reduced hack and squirt and resulted in control comparable to that seen with either triclopyr basal bark treatment. These results verify reduced hack and squirt treatment with aminocyclopyrachlor and basal bark treatment with triclopyr acid as alternatives to basal bark treatment with triclopyr ester. Both resulted in significantly less herbicide use with comparable efficacy. This operational research approach has accelerated our understanding of novel IPT strategies and their implementation in the field.
Greenhouse experiments were conducted in 2020 to investigate the effects of carrier volume and sethoxydim rate on torpedograss (Panicum repens L.) control and sand cordgrass (Spartina bakeri Merr.) response from a single application. Panicum repens control and biomass reduction generally increased with increasing sethoxydim rates in evaluations at 14, 28, and 42 d after treatment (DAT); however, increasing the rate to 2X the maximum labeled rate did not always result in increased efficacy. In the first experimental run, which consisted of small plants, P. repens control and biomass reductions were largely similar among tested carrier volumes (37, 187, and 935 L ha−1). However, in run 2, which consisted of larger, mature P. repens plants, efficacy increased when carrier volume was reduced. Spartina bakeri injury increased with sethoxydim rate, reaching a maximum of 45% by 42 DAT. However, no differences in S. bakeri injury among carrier volumes were observed at 14 and 28 DAT evaluations. Spartina bakeri aboveground biomass reductions were also largely driven by sethoxydim rate increases rather than reduced carrier volumes, reaching 40% to 50% reduction in initial aboveground biomass. However, S. bakeri belowground biomass was 20% to 32% greater in treatments applied at 37 or 187 L ha−1 compared with those at 935 L ha−1. Overall, these data suggest that selective P. repens control with sethoxydim may be enhanced through reducing carrier volumes from 935 L ha−1 and that native, perennial, caespitose grasses may exhibit greater tolerance to sethoxydim compared with the rhizomatous P. repens. Future research should further test these hypotheses under field conditions at operational scales.
Invasive shrubs often present extremely difficult challenges for individual plant treatment approaches due to multiple basal stems with complex branching patterns. Basal bark and cut stump individual plant treatments have been the standard methods for managing large-statured shrubs, while hack and squirt has been disregarded as operationally too difficult. However, hack and squirt is a more discriminant treatment technique that may lead to a reduction in herbicide use. Here, we evaluated the speed, herbicide use, and performance of a reduced hack and squirt approach using single hacks per stem injected with 0.5 ml of either aminocyclopyrachlor (240 g L−1) or aminopyralid (240 g L−1) against conventional low-volume basal bark treatment with triclopyr ester (96 g L−1) and cut stump treatment with triclopyr amine (180 g L−1). The experiments were conducted on three subtropical shrub species: Eugenia uniflora, Lagerstroemia indica, and Schinus terebinthifolia. Across species, we found the reduced hack and squirt approach resulted in comparable treatment efficacy to basal bark and cut stump treatment, was faster than cut stump treatment, and used less herbicide and carrier than basal bark treatment. A single hack per stem is a significant shift for hack and squirt treatment, which typically employs a narrow or continuous spacing of hacks around the entire circumference of each stem. Future work should seek to clarify the applicability of this approach over a wide range of invasive shrubs.
Old World climbing fern [Lygodium microphyllum (Cav.) R. Br] is a smothering vine that has invaded thousands of hectares of wetlands in southern and central Florida, including the Everglades. For more than two decades, the standard management approach in natural areas has been to cut the vines at waist height, leaving climbing rachis to desiccate in the tree canopy (poodle cutting) and subsequently treat all rooted ground cover with a foliar application of a 3% v/v solution of glyphosate. While this is generally effective, there is increasing interest in providing additional control options and more selective treatments. Along with glyphosate, triclopyr is widely used in invasive plant management and may also provide increased selectivity when treating the ground cover. However, it has not been well tested on L. microphyllum, especially the more recently developed acid and choline formulations. In a series of field trials, we compared the acid, amine, and choline formulations of triclopyr against glyphosate as a positive reference and nontreated plots as a negative reference based on control of L. microphyllum at three wetland sites in southern Florida over the period of 2016 to 2020. Significant reductions in L. microphyllum cover were measured at 1 mo after treatment (MAT) and continued to the termination of the studies at 12 and 28 MAT. We found all three triclopyr formulations applied with a single-nozzle backpack sprayer at 5.4 g ae L−1 provided comparable activity to glyphosate applied at 14.4 g ae L−1. There were few differences in L. microphyllum efficacy among the three triclopyr formulations at each site. These results indicate that triclopyr is a suitable alternative to glyphosate for L. microphyllum control in wetland ecosystems. Future research should evaluate triclopyr efficacy on L. microphyllum in varied hydrologic conditions to better refine treatment prescriptions for wetlands.
Individual plant treatment (IPT) techniques (e.g., basal bark, cut stump, hack and squirt) are used for woody invasive plant management and often rely on small trigger-pump spray bottles as an economical and efficient way to deliver a herbicide to the target species. Worldwide, plastic suppliers produce many models and designs with a wide range of uses, including pesticide application. However, spray bottle performance has rarely been examined in relation to IPT techniques for operational invasive plant management. We tested 10 commonly available spray bottles for trigger output and variation over repeated strokes. We also examined sustained trigger sprayer performance over a 6-wk period for spray bottles containing water or basal oil carriers blended with amine and ester formulations of triclopyr, respectively. In the first study, we found significant differences in spray output per stroke between almost every bottle tested. Almost all spray bottle brands yielded outputs greater than 1.0 ml per stroke, which exceeds the maximum application amount specified for hack and squirt. Several bottles produced an output of greater than 2.5 ml per stroke. In the second study, the output per stroke was reduced for basal oil mixes, with significant reductions measured for two brands by 21 d and for all three brands tested by 42 d after mixing. These results indicate that consumer-grade trigger sprayers are likely to depreciate rapidly with routine operational use without proper hygiene maintenance. Even then it is likely that these application devices may need to be replaced several times annually. Trigger-pump spray bottles are an economical and practical solution for remote field operations and volunteer weed control activities. These sprayers are most suitable for spray-to-wet techniques such as basal bark and cut-surface treatments but may potentially be less suited for hack and squirt application, which often requires sub-milliliter precision.
Mangroves are a critical component of many coastal ecosystems in Florida. Woody species, including Brazilian peppertree (Schinus terebinthifolia Raddi), have invaded thousands of hectares of mangrove habitat. The difficulty associated with ground-based management of invasive plants in mangrove communities has warranted a need to identify selective herbicides that can be applied aerially. Recent work suggests that Florida mangrove species are extremely sensitive to synthetic auxin herbicides; however, other herbicides have yet to be tested for selectivity. Greenhouse studies in 2018 and 2019 evaluated broadcast foliar applications of the acetolactate synthase inhibitor imazamox and protoporphyrinogen oxidase inhibitor carfentrazone-ethyl, both as individual treatments and in combinations, for control of S. terebinthifolia and injury to four non-target mangrove species. Across all posttreatment sample dates and species tested, there were no significant interactions between imazamox applied at 0.28 or 0.56 kg ai ha−1 in combination with carfentrazone-ethyl applied at 0 or 0.1 kg ha−1. Main effects of imazamox applied at 0.56 kg ai ha−1 and carfentrazone-ethyl applied at 0.1 kg ha−1 resulted in 99% and 97% defoliation, respectively, of Schinus terebinthifolia at 180 DAT. However, S. terebinthifolia percent survival was 56% and 44% for the same treatments. Both herbicides severely injured all four mangroves by 90 DAT and resulted in 58% to 100% defoliation across species. At 180 DAT, significant increases in percent cambium kill were also observed for all four species. Across species, mangrove survival varied, but red mangrove (Rhizophora mangle L.) survival was reduced to 6% when imazamox was applied at 0.56 kg ha−1. These results indicate both imazamox and carfentrazone-ethyl exhibit activity on S. terebinthifolia but also injure all four mangroves enough to preclude their use as selective treatments.
Brazilian peppertree (Schinus terebinthifolia Raddi) is an invasive shrub that is problematic in both freshwater wetlands and brackish mangrove communities. The complex structure, geographic remoteness, and general herbicide sensitivity of mangrove systems have resulted in great technical challenges for managers attempting selective S. terebinthifolia control. Recent advances in auxin herbicide technologies warrant herbicide screening to address this growing problem. Therefore, greenhouse experiments were conducted in 2018 and 2019 to evaluate four non-target mangrove species and S. terebinthifolia response to the three herbicides: aminocyclopyrachlor, aminopyralid, and florpyrauxifen-benyzl. Aminocyclopyrachlor controlled S. terebinthifolia, but was highly injurious to black mangrove [Avicennia germinans (L.) L.], red mangrove (Rhizophora mangle L.), white mangrove [Laguncularia racemosa (L.) C.F. Gaertn.], and buttonwood mangrove (Conocarpus erectus L.). Aminopyralid also controlled S. terebinthifolia but its impact varied across mangrove species. Laguncularia racemosa and C. erectus were highly sensitive to aminopyralid, R. mangle exhibited dose-dependent tolerance, and A. germinans was highly tolerant. Florpyrauxifen-benzyl failed to control
S. terebinthifolia and resulted in severe injury to all four mangrove species. These results indicate differential responses to newer auxins in both the target response and non-target plant community of interest. The efficacy of aminopyralid on S. terebinthifolia, coupled with its selectivity on A. germinans warrants further testing.
Burmareed [Neyraudia reynaudiana (Kunth) Keng ex Hitchc.] is an aggressive invader of pine rockland communities in south Florida. Currently, it is managed by clipping the stems and later returning, when plants have regrown to approximately 50 cm in height, to administer applications of glyphosate to new foliar growth (a “cut–return–treat,” or CRT, strategy). This multi-visit strategy is time-consuming and may result in off-target effects due to the broad-spectrum nature of glyphosate. With this study we evaluated a cut-stem (CS) approach, in which stems are cut and immediately treated with herbicide. Further, we tested the efficacy of the selective graminicides sethoxydim and fluazifop-P-butyl. In a pot study, CS treatments included: glyphosate (239.7 g ae L−1) in water, sethoxydim (9.0 g ai L−1) or fluazifop-P-butyl (12.1 g ai L−1) in either basal oil or water, and triclopyr (47.9 g ae L−1) in basal oil. All CS treatments provided mortality and growth reduction comparable to the best CRT treatments (glyphosate, sethoxydim, and fluazifop-P-butyl) and were therefore evaluated under field conditions using the same application rates. Mortality was low in the field (≤30%) regardless of herbicide treatment. Overall, fluazifop-P-butyl provided greater control than sethoxydim, resulting in 71% and 94% relative growth reduction in total shoot length with oil and water carriers, respectively, compared with 50% and 43% reduction for sethoxydim. Fluazifop also provided control similar to triclopyr and glyphosate (≥65% reduction in total shoot length). Results suggest that CS treatments may be a viable strategy for managing N. reynaudiana and reducing management costs. However, more research is needed to optimize rates. Further, fluazifop-P-butyl allows for a more selective option than glyphosate that may decrease off-target effects on native understory vegetation in pine rocklands.
Hen’s eyes (Ardisia crenata Sims) is a shade-tolerant invasive shrub displacing native understory in forests of the Coastal Plain of the southeastern United States. Few studies have explored herbicide effectiveness on A. crenata, with foliar applications of triclopyr amine or triclopyr ester typically referenced as the standard treatments. This study evaluated efficacy of eight foliar herbicide treatments and a nontreated check at three locations at 12 mo after the first treatment (12MAT1) and 12 mo after the second treatment (12MAT2) on established (greater than 8-cm high) and seedling (less than 8-cm high) A. crenata. Treatments were four triclopyr formulations: amine, ester, choline, and acid (all at 4.04 kg ae ha−1); imazamox (1.12 and 2.24 kg ae ha−1); flumioxazin (0.43 kg ai ha−1); and triclopyr amine plus flumioxazin (4.04 + 0.43 kg ae ha−1). At 12MAT1, triclopyr ester, the high rate of imazamox, and triclopyr acid resulted in greater control of established A. crenata than any other herbicide (68%, 66%, and 64%, respectively). At 12MAT2, all herbicides except flumioxazin resulted in some control of A. crenata. Triclopyr ester, triclopyr acid, and the high rate of imazamox provided 95%, 93%, and 92% control, respectively. Triclopyr choline did not perform as well as the acid or ester formulations, and the tank mix of flumioxazin and triclopyr amine did not improve control over triclopyr amine alone. This study identified triclopyr acid and imazamox (2.24 kg ae ha−1) as new options for A. crenata control and indicated variation in the performance among the four triclopyr formulations.
Cogongrass [Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv.] is an invasive grass in the southeastern United States, and its impacts strongly affect the region, especially Florida. Herbicide strategies have been limited to glyphosate in natural areas and imazapyr in managed pine forests and non-crop areas where its soil residual activity is of less concern. This lack of options has raised concern for herbicide resistance, which has never been documented for I. cylindrica. Land managers have also reported variable I. cylindrica control, especially with glyphosate. To determine whether herbicide resistance was a possible explanation, we examined glyphosate response of I. cylindrica from 12 Florida populations. We also tested aminocyclopyrachlor with and without glyphosate and flumioxazin with glyphosate. Results indicated that herbicide performance was similar across I. cylindrica populations: glyphosate and aminocyclopyrachlor reduced I. cylindrica biomass by 78% and 76%, respectively, and the combined tank mix reduced cogongrass biomass by 91%. Flumioxazin tank mixed with glyphosate did not improve control compared with glyphosate alone. There were no differences in pretreatment I. cylindrica shoot height, with the exception of two panhandle populations that were shorter. Subsequent harvests indicated few differences in shoot and root plus rhizome weights among untreated controls for almost all populations, with the exception of one of the initially shorter panhandle populations. Our findings indicate that variability in glyphosate efficacy, as suggested by managers, is unlikely due to any conferred resistance. Other abiotic factors such as drought and shade and applicator factors such as carrier water quality should be examined to better understand this issue. Additional studies examining non-target impacts of aminocyclopyrachlor should be conducted to determine its potential fit into I. cylindrica management.
Across the southeastern United States, pyridine carboxylic acid herbicides are widely used for broadleaf weed control in permanent grass pastures. This family of herbicides has proved very successful for controlling most broadleaf weeds commonly present in southeastern pastures and hayfields. In the southern United States, producers have expressed concern when overseeding legume species into warm-season perennial sods following application of commonly used pyridine carboxylic acid herbicides, as legumes are generally highly sensitive to this herbicide family. Field experiments were established to evaluate two herbicide treatment programs (residual vs nonresidual) on crimson clover overseeded into bermudagrass sod. The residual herbicide program included aminopyralid plus 2,4-D (0.09 + 0.7 kg ae ha–1), and the nonresidual program included triclopyr plus fluroxypyr (0.63 + 0.21 kg ae ha–1) plus 2,4-D (1.12 kg ae ha–1). Herbicide programs were applied at two key timings: in spring (May) and early summer (June). Spring applications were also evaluated when used in single vs repeated annual application. Our results did not indicate soil residual herbicide issues for crimson clover planted in the fall following spring or early-summer application of aminopyralid + 2,4-D at either location. Additionally, there were no cumulative negative impacts on crimson clover following 2 yr of spring herbicide application. Crimson clover cover, however, strongly decreased as grass and weed cover increased––an event that may be related to greater interspecific competition at higher levels of grass and weed cover. Soil fertility, weather, and competition from resident annual grasses and weeds strongly influenced productivity, suggesting that changes in pasture dynamics had a greater influence on clover productivity than did herbicide treatment or timing of application.
Since its introduction to the United States in 1852, Chinese privet (Ligustrum sinense Lour.) has spread throughout the Southeast, invading many natural areas. Manual control by cutting or shredding is one of the most common strategies many land managers employ. However, rapid sprouting from the root collar and lateral roots commonly results in poor control. Cutting followed by either glyphosate or triclopyr application to the stumps is generally effective, but the efficacy of these herbicides in relation to treatment timing and L. sinense root collar diameter has not been evaluated. The objective of this experiment was to determine the effectiveness of glyphosate and triclopyr cut stump treatments compared with cutting alone at spring and fall timings across a range of L. sinense size classes. Studies were conducted at two locations in Auburn, AL. Treatments included cut stump+no herbicide, cut stump+ glyphosate (120 g L−1), or cut stump+triclopyr (90 g L−1). Treatments were applied to at least 50 experimental units each at April and November timings. Root collar diameter was recorded for each stem, stems were cut 2.5 cm above the ground, and herbicide treatments were applied within 30 s. Ligustrum sinense mortality and sprouting were quantified 6, 12, and 18 mo after treatment. Both glyphosate and triclopyr amine were very effective in controlling L. sinense at both spring and fall timings. However, glyphosate provided slightly better results than triclopyr when lateral sprouting was included. Application timing also was significant, with a lower percentage of sprouting following November treatments than April treatments. Stem size influenced treatment success, as larger stumps tended to sprout more than smaller stumps. These results indicate L. sinense can be controlled with cut stump herbicide treatment using either glyphosate or triclopyr with spring or fall timings at concentrations much lower than typically used.
Triclopyr is a synthetic auxin herbicide currently available as a triethylamine salt, butoxyethyl ester, pyridinyloxyacetic acid, or choline salt. The formulation of a herbicide has the potential to impact its activity; therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the relative activity of these four triclopyr formulations. Greenhouse dose–response studies were conducted twice at the University of Florida in 2015. The four formulations were foliar applied at rates ranging from 17 to 1,121 g ae ha−1 to 2- to 3-leaf soybean, sunflower, tomato, and cotton. The amine salt formulation provided the lowest ED50 values in tomato and sunflower (22.87 and 60.39 g ha−1, respectively); whereas in soybean, amine and choline formulations provided the lowest ED50 values (22.56 and 20.95 g ha−1, respectively). No differences between formulations were observed in cotton. These data suggest that (1) the amine salt formulation of triclopyr might be more active than the others on tomato and sunflower, and (2) the amine and choline salt formulations might be more active than the others on soybean. Further work must be conducted to determine whether there are differences among these formulations under a range of field conditions and target species. In addition, other important management factors such as applicator safety, volatility potential, and cost should be considered when choosing the best formulated product to be applied.
Laboratory and greenhouse experiments were conducted to examine the absorption and fate of quinclorac in field bindweed and to assess the importance of quinclorac soil activity for field bindweed control. No foliar absorption of 14C-quinclorac occurred when applied alone, but absorption increased to 24% when quinclorac was applied with 2,4-D, 28% urea ammonium nitrate (UAN), and methylated seed oil (MSO). Quinclorac translocation in field bindweed was limited, as < 18% of the total amount of absorbed radiolabeled material translocated out of the treated leaves 168 hours after treatment (HAT). Quinclorac metabolism in the treated leaves was minimal; 95% of the recovered 14C was intact herbicide 168 HAT. Quinclorac soil activity on field bindweed was demonstrated in preemergence and soil subsurface applications. Preemergence application of 35, 70, 140, or 280 g ha−-1 quinclorac reduced field bindweed shoot growth. Field bindweed shoots exhibited auxinic herbicide symptoms at all quinclorac rates. Subsurface layering of quinclorac below the root system at rates of 35 and 280 g ha−-1 also reduced shoot and root growth. Both herbicide rates induced malformation in root structure with a proliferation of lateral branching, swollen and fused root tips, and malformed root buds. Shoot growth from surviving roots replanted in untreated media was also reduced in both herbicide treatments. These findings suggest quinclorac soil activity may be important for field bindweed control.
Field studies were conducted in Colorado, Kansas, and Wyoming to compare the use of quinclorac plus 2,4-D with picloram plus 2,4-D, dicamba plus 2,4-D, a glyphosate plus 2,4-D premix, and 2,4-D alone for control of field bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis) in a winter wheat (Triticum aestivum)-fallow rotation. Treatments were applied in late summer or fall each year for two, three, or four consecutive years at the beginning and end of each fallow period. Evaluations were taken 10 to 12 mo after treatment each year. Quinclorac plus 2,4-D and picloram plus 2,4-D consistently performed as well as or better than 2,4-D, dicamba plus 2,4-D, and glyphosate plus 2,4-D. Wheat yields increased when field bindweed was controlled during the fallow period. Strong correlations (r > −0.85) were obtained among visual field bindweed evaluation, biomass, and stand count data.
Chinese privet is an invasive shrub that commonly infests roadsides and bottomland forests across the southeastern United States. Its aggressive growth and ability to prolifically sprout from the root collar and shallow lateral roots makes control very difficult. Individual plant treatment methods such as low-volume basal bark herbicide application with triclopyr are commonly used for Chinese privet control. However, little research has been done to examine optimal triclopyr concentrations and application timings for the low-volume basal bark method. Furthermore, little is known regarding basal bark treatment efficacy when plant size varies. To address these questions, field studies were conducted from 2009 to 2011 at two locations in east-central Alabama near Auburn and Opelika. The triclopyr butoxyethyl ester formulation was applied in January or March to Chinese privet shrubs across a range of sizes in a commercially available basal oil carrier at 24 (5% v/v−1), 48 (10% v/v−1), and 96 g L−1 (20% v/v−1). Additionally, a triclopyr butoxyethyl ester ready-to-use formulation (90 g L−1) was applied at 100% v/v−1. Canopy defoliation, sprout height, and mortality were quantified at 6, 12, and 18 mo after treatment. Triclopyr at all concentrations was highly effective in defoliating Chinese privet and reducing height of new basal sprouts. However, mortality was concentration dependent. The 90 and 96 g L−1 treatments resulted in 88 and 89% mortality across timings, while the 24 and 48 g L−1 treatments resulted in 63 and 76% mortality. March applications were less effective as basal diameter increased, especially at the lower triclopyr concentrations where mortality fell to less than 40%. These results indicate that triclopyr is an effective treatment for Chinese privet control, but efficacy is influenced by concentration, application timing, and plant size.
Weed Management Areas (WMAs) are an important approach for managing invasive plants. However, most WMAs are relatively recent, and little is known about how these active partnerships can be maintained over the long term. This case study of the Estes Valley WMA examined the early community support that led to the establishment of a WMA and reasons why the Estes Valley WMA did not continue as a collaborative process. The analysis uncovered four factors that were critical to the early success of the Estes Valley WMA group: community education/awareness, key participants, a community sense of responsibility, and economic/aesthetic values. The analysis also uncovered four factors explaining why the Estes Valley WMA did not continue: a lack of group structure, unclear boundary definitions, availability of funding, and decline in motivation. Residents of the Estes Valley now rely more on the county and private contractors to provide weed management services. While this approach is meeting basic weed management needs, some interviewees feel that community involvement has declined. Recommendations are given for the reestablishment of a collaborative weed management group in the Estes Valley.
Canada thistle is a serious weed of many crop, rangeland, pasture, and natural areas throughout North America. Aminopyralid is a new pyridine carboxylic acid herbicide that has activity on Canada thistle at lower use rates than current standard treatments. The objectives of this study were to compare aminopyralid efficacy, rates, and application timing with several commercial standards for Canada thistle control. Studies were conducted across the Great Plains at ten locations, which encompassed a wide range of environments. Aminopyralid provided Canada thistle control comparable to picloram, picloram + 2,4-D amine, and clopyralid and better control than clopyralid + 2,4-D amine, dicamba, dicamba + 2,4-D amine and dicamba + diflufenzopyr. Canada thistle control was similar when aminopyralid was applied between 0.08 and 0.11 kg ai/ha and application timing (spring bolting vs. fall rosette/regrowth) did not strongly influence control 1 yr after treatment (YAT). Aminopyralid provided effective Canada thistle control at lower use rates than current commercial standards and might be useful in areas where herbicides such as picloram and clopyralid are not recommended for use.