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Planning for the preterm birth of a fetus with known anomalies can raise complex ethical issues. This is particularly true of multiple pregnancies, where the interests of each fetus and of the expectant parent(s) can conflict. In these complex situations, parental wishes and values can also conflict with the recommendations of treating clinicians. In this article, we consider the case of a dichorionic twin pregnancy complicated by the diagnosis of vein of Galen aneurysmal malformation (VGAM) in one of the twins at 28 weeks’ gestation. Subsequent deterioration of the affected twin prompted the parents to request preterm delivery to prevent the imminent in-utero demise of the affected twin. However, given the associated risks of prematurity, complying with the parents’ request may have disadvantaged the health and wellbeing of the unaffected twin. This article canvases the complex ethical issues raised when parents request preterm delivery of a multiple pregnancy complicated by a fetal anomaly in one twin, and the various ethical tools and frameworks that clinicians can draw on to guide their decision-making in such cases.
It has been suggested that the risk of adverse perinatal outcomes in twin pregnancies is exacerbated by concomitant gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). This study aimed to assess the risk incurred by twin pregnancy and by a diagnosis of GDM, separately, on the development of poor perinatal outcomes. A retrospective cohort study was conducted on all pregnant women at a tertiary center between 2016 and 2017. The impact of GDM and twin pregnancies on perinatal outcomes — birth weight above the 90th centile for gestational age, cesarean delivery, clinical neonatal hypoglycemia, and premature delivery (before 37 weeks’ gestation) — was assessed using univariate and multivariate analyses. Overall, 13,527 women were eligible for the study; 11,915 were uncomplicated singleton pregnancies; 1379 of these had GDM; 194 were twin pregnancies, and 39 of these had GDM. Univariate analyses showed that twin pregnancies were associated with a higher risk of all perinatal outcomes except macrosomia. In the multivariate analyses, twin pregnancy was a much higher predictor of cesarean delivery (OR 8.40, 95% CI [6.25, 11.49], p < .0001) and preterm birth (OR 58.82, 95% CI [31.25, 125], p < .0001) compared to GDM but GDM was a higher predictor of neonatal hypoglycemia (OR 4.87, 95% CI [3.74, 6.29], p < .0001). Twin pregnancy is more strongly associated with all adverse perinatal outcomes except macrosomia. GDM does not increase risk of adverse perinatal outcomes except for neonatal hypoglycemia.
This paper tests the ability of New Keynesian models to match the data regarding a key channel for monetary transmission: the dynamic interactions between macroeconomic variables and their corresponding expectations. We exploit survey expectations data and adopt a dynamic stochastic general equilibrium (DSGE)-VAR approach to assess the extent and sources of model misspecification. The results point to serious misspecification in the expectations-formation side of the DSGE model. The rational expectations hypothesis is primarily responsible for the model's failure to capture the co-movements between observed macroeconomic expectations and realizations. Alternative models of expectations formation help partially reconcile the New Keynesian model with the data.
Green manure crops must produce high biomass to supply biological N, increase organic matter and control weeds. The objectives of our study were to assess above-ground biomass productivity and weed suppression of clover (Trifolium spp.) green manures in an organic soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.]-winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)-corn (Zea mays L.) rotation in eastern Nebraska in three cycles (2011–12, 2012–13, 2013–14). Treatments were green manure species [red clover (T. pratense L.) and white clover (T. repens L.)] undersown into winter wheat in March and green manure mowing regime (one late summer mowing or no mowing). We measured wheat productivity and grain protein at wheat harvest, and clover and weed above-ground biomass as dry matter (DM) at wheat harvest, 35 days after wheat harvest, in October and in April before clover termination. Winter wheat grain yields and grain protein were not affected by undersown clovers. DM was higher for red than for white clover at most sampling times. Red clover produced between 0.4 and 5.5 Mg ha−1 in the fall and 0.4–5.2 Mg ha−1 in the spring. White clover produced between 0.1 and 2.5 Mg ha−1 in the fall and 0.2–3.1 Mg ha−1 in the spring. Weed DM was lower under red clover than under white clover at most sampling times. In the spring, weed DM ranged from 0.0 to 0.6 Mg ha−1 under red clover and from 0.0 to 3.1 Mg ha−1 under white clover. Mowing did not consistently affect clover or weed DM. For organic growers in eastern Nebraska, red clover undersown into winter wheat can be a productive green manure with good weed suppression potential.
The benefits of fetoscopic laser photocoagulation (FLP) for treatment of twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) have been recognized for over a decade, yet access to FLP remains limited in many settings. This means at a population level, the potential benefits of FLP for TTTS are far from being fully realized. In part, this is because there are many centers where the case volume is relatively low. This creates an inevitable tension; on one hand, wanting FLP to be readily accessible to all women who may need it, yet on the other, needing to ensure that a high degree of procedural competence is maintained. Some of the solutions to these apparently competing priorities may be found in novel training solutions to achieve, and maintain, procedural proficiency, and with the increased utilization of ‘competence based’ assessment and credentialing frameworks. We suggest an under-utilized approach is the development of collaborative surgical services, where pooling of personnel and resources can improve timely access to surgery, improve standardized assessment and management of TTTS, minimize the impact of the surgical learning curve, and facilitate audit, education, and research. When deciding which centers should offer laser for TTTS and how we decide, we propose some solutions from a collaborative model.
The current paper describes Diet In Nutrients Out (DINO), an integrated dietary assessment system incorporating dietary data entry and nutritional analysis within one platform for use in dietary assessment in small-scale intervention studies to national surveys.
DINO contains >6000 food items, mostly aggregated composites of branded foods, across thirty-one main food groups divided into 151 subsidiary groups for detailed reporting requirements, with fifty-three core nutrient fields.
MRC Human Nutrition Research (HNR), Cambridge, UK and MRC Keneba, Gambia.
DINO is used across dietary assessment projects at HNR and MRC Keneba.
DINO contains macro- and micronutrients as well as additional variables of current research and policy interest, such as caffeine, whole grains, vitamin K and added sugars. Disaggregated data are available for fruit, vegetables, meat, fish and cheese in composite foods, enabling greater accuracy when reporting food consumption or assessing adherence to dietary recommendations. Portion sizes are categorised in metric and imperial weights, with standardised portion sizes for each age group. Regular reviews are undertaken for portion sizes and food composition to ensure contemporary relevance. A training programme and a checking schedule are adhered to for quality assurance purposes, covering users and data. Eating context questions are integrated to record where and with whom the respondent is eating, allowing examination between these factors and the foods consumed.
An up-to-date quality-assured system for dietary assessment is crucial for nutritional surveillance and research, but needs to have the flexibility to be tailored to address specific research questions.
Few studies have considered the combined effects of home-related determinants on children's diet. The present study investigated independent associations between sociodemographic and food practice (SFP) characteristics and fruit and vegetable consumption in UK children and the combined effects of SFP on consumption using pattern analysis.
Diet was assessed using 4 d food diaries, SFP were collected using computer-assisted personal interview. Linear regressions were used to test associations; principal component analysis was used to identify patterns of SFP characteristics. Regression of fruit (g/d) and vegetables (g/d) v. component scores of each pattern were performed.
UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey Rolling Programme (2008–2010).
Children aged 1·5–10 years (n 642).
Significant associations were found between fruit and vegetable consumption and household socio-economic status. Pattern 1, which was positively correlated with household structure characteristics, was associated with increased fruit consumption (P < 0·001). Pattern 2, characterised by positive correlations for socio-economic status, fruit availability and organic food purchase, and negatively correlated with household size and the number of children per household, was associated with higher fruit and vegetable consumption (both P < 0·001). Pattern 3, characterised by high frequency of eating out and eating takeaway, was associated with a lower consumption of both fruit (P < 0·012) and vegetables (P < 0·023).
Patterns of SFP determinants may be more informative than individual characteristics in relation to dietary outcomes. Results have public health implications on the healthfulness of meals eaten out of home and in takeaways, as well as the need to reduce diet inequality in larger households with lower socio-economic status.
The death of a patient by suicide can severely affect mental health professionals, particularly if it occurs despite major efforts to intervene. Notwithstanding the difficulties faced by clinicians, suicide prevention remains of paramount importance in order to help save lives. This article seeks to promote a pragmatic and compassionate biopsychosocial response using evidence-based interventions to reduce suicide. It introduces practical strategies that psychiatrists can use in everyday clinical practice, in particular the paradigm shift of suicide mitigation to help prevent suicide. We believe that every encounter with a suicidal person is an opportunity to intervene to reduce their distress and, potentially, to save a life. We believe that it is no longer acceptable for clinicians to state that if patients wish to kill themselves they can do so, in the absence of any attempt at a compassionate intervention.
Healthcare professionals require an understanding of how the behaviour and characteristics of both patients and assessors can affect suicide risk identification and response. This article reviews the literature on how we currently assess suicide risk and considers the need for a paradigm shift in how healthcare professionals engage with and assess suicidal patients. It also reviews some of the evidence base for interventions to mitigate the risk of suicide and promotes pragmatic and compassionate interventions.
The National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS) is a cross-sectional survey designed to gather data representative of the UK population on food consumption, nutrient intakes and nutritional status. The objectives of the present paper were to identify and describe food consumption and nutrient intakes in the UK from the first year of the NDNS rolling programme (2008–09) and compare these with the 2000–01 NDNS of adults aged 19–64 years and the 1997 NDNS of young people aged 4–18 years. Differences in median daily food consumption and nutrient intakes between the surveys were compared by sex and age group (4–10 years, 11–18 years and 19–64 years). There were no changes in energy, total fat or carbohydrate intakes between the surveys. Children aged 4–10 years had significantly lower consumption of soft drinks (not low calorie), crisps and savoury snacks and chocolate confectionery in 2008–09 than in 1997 (all P < 0·0001). The percentage contribution of non-milk extrinsic sugars to food energy was also significantly lower than in 1997 in children aged 4–10 years (P < 0·0001), contributing 13·7–14·6 % in 2008–09 compared with 16·8 % in 1997. These changes were not as marked in older children and there were no changes in these foods and nutrients in adults. There was still a substantial proportion (46 %) of girls aged 11–18 years and women aged 19–64 years (21 %) with mean daily Fe intakes below the lower reference nutrient intake. Since previous surveys there have been some positive changes in intakes especially in younger children. However, further attention is required in other groups, in particular adolescent girls.
In this paper we first give a brief overview of the MOCVD of high temperature superconductors and consider the general requirements of a precursor. We then present results for deposition from Y containing precursors and compare apparent enthalpies of sublimation and deposition activation energies with values in the literature. The problem of Ba containing precursors are briefly reviewed and results given for the sublimation of and deposition from a new stable and volatile precursor. Finally, some comments are made about possible deposition mechanisms.
We report on novel liquid crystals with extremely large flexoelectric coefficients in a range of ultra-fast photonic modes, namely 1) the uniform lying helix, that leads to in-plain switching, birefringence phase devices with 100 μs switching times at low fields, i.e.2-5 V/μm, and analogue or grey scale capability, 2) the uniform standing helix, using planar surface alignment and in-plane fields, with sub ms response times and optical contrasts in excess of 5000:1 with a perfect optically isotropic or black “off state”, 3) the wide temperature range blue phase that leads to field controlled reflective color, 4) chiral nematic optical reflectors electric field tunable over a wide wavelength range and 5) high slope efficiency, wide wavelength range tunable narrow linewidth microscopic liquid crystal lasers.
We assembled an international collection of strains from sporadic and epidemic human infection with Streptococcus zooepidemicus (Lancefield group C) for laboratory study. Cultural and physiological characteristics of the isolates were determined, including biotyping with the API 20 STREP test kit and susceptibility testing with penicillin, erythromycin and tetracycline. The strains were examined for bacteriocin production and sensitivity and typed with a specially developed group-C streptococcal bacteriophage system incorporating a panel of 14 phages. Results of these tests gave useful discrimination between many of the strains: differences were shown between each of the major outbreak strains, including those complicated by post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis.
Serious group C streptococcal infection may be caused by S. zooepidemicus and isolates should be identified to species level; the application of a typing scheme such as this may help to distinguish epidemiological patterns of infection.