To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Kym Anderson, University of Adelaide,Cheryl McRae, Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry in Canberra, Australia,David Wilson, Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry in Canberra, Australia
Countries restrict imports through quarantine controls to reduce the risks and expected costs of pest and disease incursions. Countries have also used trade barriers such as import tariffs and quotas to protect domestic industries against competition from imports. The higher benefits that could be obtained under freer trade regimes have prompted international agreements to liberalise trade under the General Agreement on Tariff and Trade (GATT) and, its successor, the World Trade Organization (WTO).
Under the WTO Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures, a Member has the sovereign right to determine the level of sanitary and phytosanitary protection it deems appropriate and to institute plant and animal health and food safety measures to protect against bona fide risks. Sanitary and phytosanitary measures, such as disease-free certification requirements, are instruments that importing countries use to lower the risk of pest and disease incursion. To prevent the use of SPS measures as disguised trade barriers, WTO Members can institute SPS measures provided they are:
based on a sound scientific assessment process;
not more trade-restrictive than necessary to achieve the desired level of protection against pests and diseases; and
nondiscriminatory - sanitary and phytosanitary measures must not discriminate between Members where identical or similar conditions prevail, including between their own territory and that of Members.
Implementing SPS measures that meet these guidelines in a consistent manner within and between countries is proving to be difficult and several Member countries, including Australia, have been drawn into the lengthy and expensive WTO dispute settlement process. This inability to establish consistent SPS protocols may lead to a greater number of disputes in the future and reduce the effectiveness of the SPS Agreement to facilitate trade.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.