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The U.S. Department of Agriculture–Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS) has been a leader in weed science research covering topics ranging from the development and use of integrated weed management (IWM) tactics to basic mechanistic studies, including biotic resistance of desirable plant communities and herbicide resistance. ARS weed scientists have worked in agricultural and natural ecosystems, including agronomic and horticultural crops, pastures, forests, wild lands, aquatic habitats, wetlands, and riparian areas. Through strong partnerships with academia, state agencies, private industry, and numerous federal programs, ARS weed scientists have made contributions to discoveries in the newest fields of robotics and genetics, as well as the traditional and fundamental subjects of weed–crop competition and physiology and integration of weed control tactics and practices. Weed science at ARS is often overshadowed by other research topics; thus, few are aware of the long history of ARS weed science and its important contributions. This review is the result of a symposium held at the Weed Science Society of America’s 62nd Annual Meeting in 2022 that included 10 separate presentations in a virtual Weed Science Webinar Series. The overarching themes of management tactics (IWM, biological control, and automation), basic mechanisms (competition, invasive plant genetics, and herbicide resistance), and ecosystem impacts (invasive plant spread, climate change, conservation, and restoration) represent core ARS weed science research that is dynamic and efficacious and has been a significant component of the agency’s national and international efforts. This review highlights current studies and future directions that exemplify the science and collaborative relationships both within and outside ARS. Given the constraints of weeds and invasive plants on all aspects of food, feed, and fiber systems, there is an acknowledged need to face new challenges, including agriculture and natural resources sustainability, economic resilience and reliability, and societal health and well-being.
This national pre-pandemic survey compared demand and capacity of adult community eating disorder services (ACEDS) with NHS England (NHSE) commissioning guidance.
Thirteen services in England and Scotland responded (covering 10.7 million population). Between 2016–2017 and 2019–2020 mean referral rates increased by 18.8%, from 378 to 449/million population. Only 3.7% of referrals were from child and adolescent eating disorder services (CEDS-CYP), but 46% of patients were aged 18–25 and 54% were aged >25. Most ACEDS had waiting lists and rationed access. Many could not provide full medical monitoring, adapt treatment for comorbidities, offer assertive outreach or provide seamless transitions. For patient volume, the ACEDS workforce budget was 15%, compared with the NHSE workforce calculator recommendations for CEDS-CYP. Parity required £7 million investment/million population for the ACEDS.
This study highlights the severe pressure in ACEDS, which has increased since the COVID-19 pandemic. Substantial investment is required to ensure NHS ACEDS meet national guidance, offer evidence-based treatment, reduce risk and preventable deaths, and achieve parity with CEDS-CYP.
The COVID-19 pandemic public health strategy to reduce community transmission in Australia included unprecedented use of quarantine facilities to separate those at risk and those with the infection from the rest of the community. No standardized approach to quarantine facilities existed resulting in different models of care emerging across the country. The Northern Territory Howard Springs Quarantine Facility was a large-scale quarantine and isolation operation which hosted over 33,000 domestic and international arrivals with zero COVID-19 transmission recorded from residents to staff for the duration of its operation. The facility was deemed the gold standard model of care and the aim of this project was to distill the important elements of that model of care into an evidence-based tool kit for future use as an open access, online resource. The toolkit was a result of intense data and information analysis including resident, staff and leadership surveys, policies and procedures and results of audits of the facility during its operation.
This project to develop an online, open access evidence-based toolkit forms part of the Translational Research to Improve Health Outcomes project funded by the Australian Government’s Medical Research Future Fund. The methodology included mixed methods with an underpinning grounded theory approach to analyze de-identified audit data and information from the quarantine and isolation facility operational period. Staff and leadership team surveys were conducted to explore experiences of site functions and infrastructure. A (non-experimental) descriptive design allowed collation and statistical analysis of information recognizing the variables in the data and information.
The toolbox includes a resident centered quarantine care model, infection, prevention and control strategies for health professionals and non-health staff, quarantine communication model and presentation of core challenges (rapid recruitment, environmental factors, workforce resilience).
The resulting online web resource presents evidence-based core strategies and resources for implementation in future pandemics.
Despite a well-established link between childhood traumatic brain injury (TBI) and elevated secondary attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (s-ADHD) symptomology, the neurostructural correlates of these symptoms are largely unknown. Based on the influential ‘triple-network model’ of ADHD, this prospective longitudinal investigation aimed to (i) assess the effect of childhood TBI on brain morphometry of higher-order cognitive networks proposed to play a key role in ADHD pathophysiology, including the default-mode network (DMN), salience network (SN) and central executive network (CEN); and (ii) assess the independent prognostic value of DMN, SN and CEN morphometry in predicting s-ADHD symptom severity after childhood TBI.
The study sample comprised 155 participants, including 112 children with medically confirmed mild-severe TBI ascertained from consecutive hospital admissions, and 43 typically developing (TD) children matched for age, sex and socio-economic status. High-resolution structural brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences were acquired sub-acutely in a subset of 103 children with TBI and 34 TD children. Parents completed well-validated measures of ADHD symptom severity at 12-months post injury.
Relative to TD children and those with milder levels of TBI severity (mild, complicated mild, moderate), children with severe TBI showed altered brain morphometry within large-scale, higher-order cognitive networks, including significantly diminished grey matter volumes within the DMN, SN and CEN. When compared with the TD group, the TBI group showed significantly higher ADHD symptomatology and higher rates of clinically elevated symptoms. In multivariable models adjusted for other well-established risk factors, altered DMN morphometry independently predicted higher s-ADHD symptomatology at 12-months post-injury, whilst SN and CEN morphometry were not significant independent predictors.
Our prospective study findings suggest that neurostructural alterations within higher-order cognitive circuitry may represent a prospective risk factor for s-ADHD symptomatology at 12-months post-injury in children with TBI. High-resolution structural brain MRI has potential to provide early prognostic biomarkers that may help early identification of high-risk children with TBI who are likely to benefit from early surveillance and preventive measures to optimise long-term neuropsychiatric outcomes.
This article is a clinical guide which discusses the “state-of-the-art” usage of the classic monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) antidepressants (phenelzine, tranylcypromine, and isocarboxazid) in modern psychiatric practice. The guide is for all clinicians, including those who may not be experienced MAOI prescribers. It discusses indications, drug-drug interactions, side-effect management, and the safety of various augmentation strategies. There is a clear and broad consensus (more than 70 international expert endorsers), based on 6 decades of experience, for the recommendations herein exposited. They are based on empirical evidence and expert opinion—this guide is presented as a new specialist-consensus standard. The guide provides practical clinical advice, and is the basis for the rational use of these drugs, particularly because it improves and updates knowledge, and corrects the various misconceptions that have hitherto been prominent in the literature, partly due to insufficient knowledge of pharmacology. The guide suggests that MAOIs should always be considered in cases of treatment-resistant depression (including those melancholic in nature), and prior to electroconvulsive therapy—while taking into account of patient preference. In selected cases, they may be considered earlier in the treatment algorithm than has previously been customary, and should not be regarded as drugs of last resort; they may prove decisively effective when many other treatments have failed. The guide clarifies key points on the concomitant use of incorrectly proscribed drugs such as methylphenidate and some tricyclic antidepressants. It also illustrates the straightforward “bridging” methods that may be used to transition simply and safely from other antidepressants to MAOIs.
The Northern Ireland psychiatry mentoring scheme, in which higher trainees mentor core trainee year 1 (CT1) doctors, has been running for four years. In this year's scheme, implemented in August 2021, we have expanded the scope of the scheme and implemented an online platform to match and connect mentors and mentees. Our aim was to gather baseline data regarding the experiences of mentors and mentees and to capture information regarding the content of mentoring meetings and attitudes towards format of meetings.
Higher psychiatry trainees were invited to sign up as mentors through the Northern Ireland Medical and Dental Training Agency (NIMDTA) and Royal College of Psychiatry Northern Ireland (RCPsych NI) mailing lists. Mentors were obliged to complete a theoretical module on training before meeting their mentees. Core trainees in the first and second year of training were asked to opt-out of the scheme if they preferred not to be involved. CT3 trainees were offered the opportunity to opt-in to the scheme. There were a total of 16 mentors and 22 mentees at the outset. The NIMDTA Professional Support Unit provided an online platform, Mentornet, which allowed mentors and mentees to complete a profile, for mentees to rank their preferences for mentor, and to facilitate meetings. One of the authors (M.M.) presented the developments in the scheme to a nationwide audience in the RCPsych webinar on mentoring.
Six mentors and two mentees responded to the call to complete a baseline online questionnaire. 83% of mentors responded that they had found their role enjoyable and rewarding, whilst 67% of mentors indicated that their role had helped them develop in other skill areas. Both mentees responded that they had found the scheme beneficial and would recommend participation to other trainees.
Mentorship is a valuable opportunity for senior psychiatry trainees to facilitate the professional development of junior trainees and to pass on their experience. This is the first year that all core trainees have been invited to participate and that a new web platform has been used to facilitate meetings. Baseline feedback response numbers have been limited although the responses were universally positive. We intend to obtain further feedback at the end of this year in order to devise quality improvement measures for the 2022/2023 cohort.
Psychosocial deficits, such as emotional, behavioral and social problems, reflect the most common and disabling consequences of pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI). Their causes and recovery likely differ from physical and cognitive skills, due to disruption to developing brain networks and the influence of the child's environment. Despite increasing recognition of post-injury behavioral and social problems, there exists a paucity of research regarding the incidence of social impairment, and factors predicting risk and resilience in the social domain over time since injury.
Using a prospective, longitudinal design, and a bio-psychosocial framework, we studied children with TBI (n = 107) at baseline (pre-injury function), 6 months, 1 and 2-years post-injury. We assessed intellectual ability, attention/executive function, social cognition, social communication and socio-emotional function. Children underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 2–8 weeks post-injury. Parents rated their child's socio-emotional function and their own mental health, family function and perceived burden.
We distinguished five social recovery profiles, characterized by a complex interplay between environment and pre- and post-TBI factors, with injury factors playing a lesser role. Resilience in social competence was linked to intact family and parent function, intact pre-injury adaptive abilities, post-TBI cognition and social participation. Vulnerability in the social domain was related to poor pre- and post-injury adaptive abilities, greater behavioral concerns, and poorer pre- and post-injury parent health and family function.
We identified five distinct social recovery trajectories post-child-TBI, each characterized by a unique biopsychosocial profile, highlighting the importance of comprehensive social assessment and understanding of factors contributing to social impairment, to target resources and interventions to children at highest risk.
The involvement of citizens in the production and creation of public services has become a central tenet for administrations internationally. In Scotland, co-production has underpinned the integration of health and social care via the Public Bodies (Joint Working) (Scotland) Act 2014. We report on a qualitative study that examined the experiences and perspectives of local and national leaders in Scotland on undertaking and sustaining co-production in public services. By adopting a meso and macro perspective, we interviewed senior planning officers from eight health and social care partnership areas in Scotland and key actors in national agencies. The findings suggest that an overly complex Scottish governance landscape undermines the sustainability of co-production efforts. As part of a COVID-19 recovery, both the implementation of meaningful co-production and coordinated leadership for health and social care in Scotland need to be addressed, as should the development of evaluation capacities of those working across health and social care boundaries so that co-production can be evaluated and report to inform the future of the integration agenda.
Maintaining Mg status may be important for military recruits, a population that experiences high rates of stress fracture during initial military training (IMT). The objectives of this secondary analysis were to (1) compare dietary Mg intake and serum Mg in female and male recruits pre- and post-IMT, (2) determine whether serum Mg was related to parameters of bone health pre-IMT, and (3) whether Ca and vitamin D supplementation (Ca/vitamin D) during IMT modified serum Mg. Females (n 62) and males (n 51) consumed 2000 mg of Ca and 25 μg of vitamin D/d or placebo during IMT (12 weeks). Dietary Mg intakes were estimated using FFQ, serum Mg was assessed and peripheral quantitative computed tomography was performed on the tibia. Dietary Mg intakes for females and males pre-IMT were below the estimated average requirement and did not change with training. Serum Mg increased during IMT in females (0·06 ± 0·08 mmol/l) compared with males (–0·02 ± 0·10 mmol/l; P < 0·001) and in those consuming Ca/vitamin D (0·05 ± 0·09 mmol/l) compared with placebo (0·001 ± 0·11 mmol/l; P = 0·015). In females, serum Mg was associated with total bone mineral content (BMC, β = 0·367, P = 0·004) and robustness (β = 0·393, P = 0·006) at the distal 4 % site, stress–strain index of the polaris axis (β = 0·334, P = 0·009) and robustness (β = 0·420, P = 0·004) at the 14 % diaphyseal site, and BMC (β = 0·309, P = 0·009) and stress–strain index of the polaris axis (β = 0·314, P = 0·006) at the 66 % diaphyseal site pre-IMT. No significant relationships between serum Mg and bone measures were observed in males. Findings suggest that serum Mg may be modulated by Ca/vitamin D intake and may impact tibial bone health during training in female military recruits.
To assess the effect of individual compared to clinic-level feedback on guideline-concordant care for 3 acute respiratory tract infections (ARTIs) among family medicine clinicians caring for pediatric patients.
Cluster randomized controlled trial with a 22-month baseline, 26-month intervention period, and 12-month postintervention period.
Setting and participants:
In total, 26 family medicine practices (39 clinics) caring for pediatric patients in Virginia, North Carolina, and South Carolina were selected based upon performance on guideline-concordance for 3 ARTIs, stratified by practice size. These were randomly allocated to a control group (17 clinics in 13 practices) or to an intervention group (22 clinics in 13 practices).
All clinicians received an education session and baseline then monthly clinic-level rates for guideline-concordant antibiotic prescribing for ARTIs: upper respiratory tract infection (URI), acute bacterial sinusitis (ABS), and acute otitis media (AOM). For the intervention group only, individual clinician performance was provided.
Both intervention and control groups demonstrated improvement from baseline, but the intervention group had significantly greater improvement compared with the control group: URI (odds ratio [OR], 1.62; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.37–1.92; P < 0.01); ABS (OR, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.11–1.88; P < 0.01); and AOM (OR, 1.59; 95% CI, 1.24–2.03; P < 0.01). The intervention group also showed significantly greater reduction in broad-spectrum antibiotic prescribing percentage (BSAP%): odds ratio 0.80, 95% CI 0.74-0.87, P < 0.01. During the postintervention year, gains were maintained in the intervention group for each ARTI and for URI and AOM in the control group.
Monthly individual peer feedback is superior to clinic-level only feedback in family medicine clinics for 3 pediatric ARTIs and for BSAP% reduction.
ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT04588376, Improving Antibiotic Prescribing for Pediatric Respiratory Infection by Family Physicians with Peer Comparison.
Our aim was to establish a Peer Mentoring Network within Psychiatry Training in Northern Ireland.
Recognising that starting a new job can be a stressful time in any junior doctor's career, we wanted to ensure that new Core Trainees (CT1s) joining our Specialty Programme were well supported through this transition.
Although Clinical and Educational Supervision is well established in providing a support structure for trainees, we believed that a peer mentoring relationship, (with allocation of a Higher Psychiatry Trainee as mentor), would be of additional benefit.
It was hoped that the scheme would prove mutually beneficial to both mentee and mentor.
We delivered a presentation at CT1 induction and sent out follow-up emails to encourage participation. Higher trainees were also sent information via email and asked to complete a basic application form if interested in becoming a mentor. Prospective mentors then attended a one-day training session.
Two lead mentors, (also higher trainees), were allocated to oversee the scheme, with additional supervision from two lead Consultants. Mentor-Mentee matches were made based on information such as location, sub-specialty affiliations and outside interests.
Matched pairs were advised about the intended frequency and nature of contacts. Check-in emails were sent halfway through the year and feedback evaluations completed at the end.
95% of trainees who completed the evaluations said they would recommend the scheme to colleagues.
Mentees reported benefits in terms of personal and professional development, whilst mentors reported improved listening, coaching, and supervisory skills.
A small number of trainees highlighted that 6 monthly rotations impacted on ability to maintain face to face contacts.
Recruitment and engagement have improved annually. We are currently running the third year of the scheme and have achieved 100% uptake amongst CT1s and are over-subscribed with mentors, (19 mentors to 13 mentees).
The majority of feedback received has been positive and interest in the scheme continues to grow.
Potential issues relating to location of postings has been overcome, at least in part, by recent changes to ways of working and the use of alternative forms of contact, such as video calling.
Having exceeded demand in terms of mentor recruitment, we hope to extend the scheme to include trainees of other grades, and particularly those who are new to Northern Ireland.
We are excited to see where the next stage of our journey takes us and hope that others will be inspired to embark on similar schemes within their areas of work.
ABSTRACT IMPACT: This work will standardize necessary image pre-processing for diagnostic and prognostic clinical workflows dependent on quantitative analysis of conventional magnetic resonance imaging. OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) poses challenges for quantitative analysis due to a lack of uniform inter-scanner voxel intensity values. Head and neck cancer (HNC) applications in particular have not been well investigated. This project aims to systematically evaluate voxel intensity standardization (VIS) methods for HNC MRI. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We utilize two separate cohorts of HNC patients, where T2-weighted (T2-w) MRI sequences were acquired before beginning radiotherapy for five patients in each cohort. The first cohort corresponds to patients with images taken at various institutions with a variety of non-uniform acquisition scanners and parameters. The second cohort corresponds to patients from a prospective clinical trial with uniformity in both scanner and acquisition parameters. Regions of interest from a variety of healthy tissues assumed to have minimal interpatient variation were manually contoured for each image and used to compare differences between a variety of VIS methods for each cohort. Towards this end, we implement a new metric for cohort intensity distributional overlap to compare region of interest similarity in a given cohort. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Using a simple and interpretable metric, we have systematically investigated the effects of various commonly implementable VIS methods on T2-w sequences for two independent cohorts of HNC patients based on region of interest intensity similarity. We demonstrate VIS has a substantial effect on T2-w images where non-uniform acquisition parameters and scanners are utilized. Oppositely, it has a modest to minimal impact on T2-w images generated from the same scanner with the same acquisition parameters. Moreover, with a few notable exceptions, there does not seem to be a clear advantage or disadvantage to using one VIS method over another for T2-w images with non-uniform acquisition parameters. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF FINDINGS: Our results inform which VIS methods should be favored in HNC MRI and may indicate VIS is not a critical factor to consider in circumstances where similar acquisition parameters can be utilized. Moreover, our results can help guide downstream quantitative imaging tasks that may one day be implemented in clinical workflows.
Morphologically complex forms are related to their bases in two ways: some alteration (perhaps vacuous) of form is correlated with some alteration (also possibly vacuous) of meaning. In a sort of ideal case, this is representable by the addition of a morpheme bearing both phonological and semantic content, comparable to a Saussurean (minimal) sign. Criticism of the claim that this is indeed the general case has focused on formal relations that cannot be seen as strictly additive: ablaut, umlaut, consonant shifts, metathesis, truncation, and other markers that apparently change the shape of the base rather than simply adding material to it. The present paper brings into the discussion the opposite side of this coin: instances in which it is the semantics, rather than the phonology of the base form, that is altered in a non-additive way in a morphologically derived form. Specific cases involve the removal of a component of meaning associated with one argument of the base, correlated with the addition of a component of form. These examples constitute a challenge for morpheme-based views of morphology, comparable to that posed by non-concatenative formal markers, and a challenge to the claim that morphology is always semantically monotonic.
Zn is an essential nutrient for humans; however, a sensitive biomarker to assess Zn status has not been identified. The objective of this study was to determine the reliability and sensitivity of Zn transporter and metallothionein (MT) genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) to Zn exposure ex vivo and to habitual Zn intake in human subjects. In study 1, human PBMCs were cultured for 24 h with 0–50 µm ZnSO4 with or without 5 µm N,N,N′,N′-tetrakis(2-pyridylmethyl)ethylenediamine (TPEN), and mRNA expression of SLC30A1-10, SLC39A1-14, MT1 subtypes (A, B, E, F, G, H, L, M and X), MT2A, MT3 and MT4 mRNA was determined. In study 2, fifty-four healthy male and female volunteers (31·9 (sd 13·8) years, BMI 25·7 (sd 2·9) kg/m2) completed a FFQ, blood was collected, PBMCs were isolated and mRNA expression of selected Zn transporters and MT isoforms was determined. Study 1: MT1E, MT1F, MT1G, MT1H, MT1L, MT1M, MT1X, MT2A and SLC30A1 increased with increasing concentrations of Zn and declined with the addition of TPEN. Study 2: Average daily Zn intake was 16·0 (sd 5·3) mg/d (range: 9–31 mg/d), and plasma Zn concentrations were 15·5 (SD 2·8) μmol/l (range 11–23 μmol/l). PBMC MT2A was positively correlated with dietary Zn intake (r 0·306, P = 0·03) and total Zn intake (r 0·382, P < 0·01), whereas plasma Zn was not (P > 0·05 for both). Findings suggest that MT2A mRNA in PBMCs reflects dietary Zn intake in healthy adults and may be a component in determining Zn status.
While negative affect reliably predicts binge eating, it is unknown how this association may decrease or ‘de-couple’ during treatment for binge eating disorder (BED), whether such change is greater in treatments targeting emotion regulation, or how such change predicts outcome. This study utilized multi-wave ecological momentary assessment (EMA) to assess changes in the momentary association between negative affect and subsequent binge-eating symptoms during Integrative Cognitive Affective Therapy (ICAT-BED) and Cognitive Behavior Therapy Guided Self-Help (CBTgsh). It was predicted that there would be stronger de-coupling effects in ICAT-BED compared to CBTgsh given the focus on emotion regulation skills in ICAT-BED and that greater de-coupling would predict outcomes.
Adults with BED were randomized to ICAT-BED or CBTgsh and completed 1-week EMA protocols and the Eating Disorder Examination (EDE) at pre-treatment, end-of-treatment, and 6-month follow-up (final N = 78). De-coupling was operationalized as a change in momentary associations between negative affect and binge-eating symptoms from pre-treatment to end-of-treatment.
There was a significant de-coupling effect at follow-up but not end-of-treatment, and de-coupling did not differ between ICAT-BED and CBTgsh. Less de-coupling was associated with higher end-of-treatment EDE global scores at end-of-treatment and higher binge frequency at follow-up.
Both ICAT-BED and CBTgsh were associated with de-coupling of momentary negative affect and binge-eating symptoms, which in turn relate to cognitive and behavioral treatment outcomes. Future research is warranted to identify differential mechanisms of change across ICAT-BED and CBTgsh. Results also highlight the importance of developing momentary interventions to more effectively de-couple negative affect and binge eating.
Eating disorders are heterogeneous disorders characterised by a maladaptive drive to lose weight and, for the most part, by extreme fear of weight gain and overvaluation of thin body image. Calorie restriction, overexercise and purging behaviours put some sufferers at high risk of physical morbidity and mortality. Mental preoccupations interfere with social, professional and general quality of life. Patients’ defensive secrecy and compulsivity can make it hard to diagnose and treat such disorders despite the suffering they involve. Integrated medical and psychiatric intervention can save life and safely improve nutrition. Behavioural support – with family and carer involvement when appropriate – can counter the dysregulation that leads to vicious cycles of restriction–binge–purge, helping patients develop new skills to regulate emotion without weight losing. In the future, exciting developments in neuroimaging, neurosurgery and pharmacology may lead to ways to make the brain more responsive to therapy. Insights into risk factors may also improve preventive strategies in a climate of highly sophisticated international electronic communication.
Objectives: Children with acquired brain injury (ABI) can present with disruptive behavior, which is often a consequence of injury and parent factors. Parent factors are associated with child disruptive behavior. Furthermore, disinhibition in the child also leads to disruptive behavior. However, it is unclear how these factors interact. We investigated whether parental factors influence child disruptive behavior following ABI and how these factors interact. Methods: Parents of 77 children with ABI participated in the study. Parent factors (executive dysfunction, trait-anxiety), potential intervention targets (dysfunctional parenting practices, parental stress, child disinhibition), and child disruptive behavior were assessed. A hypothetical model based on the literature was tested using mediation and path analysis. Results: Mediation analysis revealed that child disinhibition and dysfunctional parenting practices mediated the association of parent factors and child disruptive behavior. Parents’ executive dysfunction mediated the association of dysfunctional parenting practices, parental stress and parent trait-anxiety. Parenting practices mediated the association of executive dysfunction and child disruptive behavior. Path analysis indices indicated good model adjustment. Comparative and Tucker-Lewis Index were >0.95, and the root mean square error of approximation was 0.059, with a chi-square of 0.25. Conclusions: A low level of parental trait-anxiety may be required to reduce dysfunctional parenting practices and child disinhibition. Impairments in child disinhibition can be exacerbated when parents present with high trait-anxiety. Child disinhibition is the major contributor of disruptive behavior reported by parents and teachers. The current study provides evidence of parent anxiety and child disinhibition as possible modifiable intervention targets for reducing child disruptive behavior. (JINS, 2019, 25, 237–248)