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Disaster management is a complex and difficult undertaking that may involve limited health care resources and evaluation of multiple victims. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the feasibility of real-time ultrasound video transmission from a simulated disaster triage location via commercially available video mobile phones and assess the ability of emergency physicians to accurately interpret the transmitted video of Focused Assessment with Sonography for Trauma (FAST) ultrasound examinations.
This was a prospective, observational study that took place at a simulated disaster scene put on for an Advanced Disaster Life Support (ADLS) course. The second component occurred at a Level I academic urban emergency department (ED) with an annual census of 78,000. Nineteen subjects at a simulated disaster scene were scanned using a SonoSite Titan ultrasound system (Bothell, Washington USA). An off-the-shelf, basic, video-capable mobile phone was used to record each ultrasound examination; and then immediately transmit the videos to another mobile phone approximately 170 miles away. The transmitted video was received by three emergency physicians with hospital credentialing in emergency ultrasound. Each FAST examination video was assessed for pathology, such as free fluid. The reviewers graded the image quality and documented the overall confidence level regarding whether or not a complete and adequate examination was visualized. Spearman's rank correlation coefficient was used to examine the agreement between the reviewers and the sonologist who performed the ultrasound examinations.
A total of 19 videos were transmitted. The median time for transmission of a video was 82.5 seconds (95% CI, 67.7 seconds-97.3 seconds). No video failed to transmit correctly on the first attempt. The image quality ratings for the three reviewers were 7.7, 7.5, and 7.4 on a 10-point Likert scale. There was a moderate agreement between the reviewers and sonologist in image quality rating and overall confidence level scores (rho = 0.6).
Real-time portable ultrasound video transmission via commercially available video mobile phones from a simulated disaster triage location is feasible and emergency physicians were able to accurately interpret video of FAST ultrasound examinations.
AdhikariS, BlaivasM, LyonM, ShiverS. Transfer of Real-time Ultrasound Video of FAST Examinations from a Simulated Disaster Scene Via a Mobile Phone. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2014;29(3):1-4.
Exsanguination from a femoral artery wound can occur in sec-onds and may be encountered more often due to increased use of body armor. Some military physicians teach compression of the distal abdominal aorta (Abdominal Aorta) with a knee or a fist as a temporizing measure.
The objective of this study was to evaluate if complete collapse of the Abdominal Aorta was feasible and with what weight it occurs.
This was a prospective, interventional study at a Level-I, academ-ic, urban, emergency department with an annual census of 80,000 patients. Written, informed consent was obtained from nine male volunteers after Institutional Research Board approval. Any patient who presented with abdominal pain or had undergone previous abdominal surgery was excluded from the study. Subjects were placed supine on the floor to simulate an injured soldier. Various dumbbells of increasing weight were placed over the distal Abdominal Aorta, and pulsed-wave Doppler measurements were taken at the right common femoral artery (CFA). Dumbbells were placed on top of a tightly bundled towel roughly the surface area of an adult knee. Flow measurements at the CFA were taken at increments of 20 pounds. This was repeated with weight over the proximal right artery iliac and distal right iliac artery to eval- uate alternate sites. Descriptive statistics were utilized to evaluate the data.
The mean velocity through the CFA was 75.8 cm/ sec at 0 pounds. Compression of the Abdominal Aorta ranging 80 to 140 pounds resulted in no flow in the CFA. A steady decrease in mean flow velocity was seen starting with 20 pounds. Flow velocity decreased more rapidly with compression of the prox- imal right iliac artery, and stopped in all nine volunteers by 120 pounds of pressure. For all nine volunteers, up to 80 pounds of pressure over the distal iliac artery failed to decrease CFA flow velocity, and no subject was able to tolerate more weight at that location.
Flow to the CFA can be stopped completely with pressure over the distal Abdominal Aorta or proximal iliac artery in catastrophic wounds. Compression over the proximal iliac artery worked best, but a first responder still may need to apply upward of 120 pounds of pressure to stop exsanguination.
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