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The relations between genetic change in domestic livestock and infectious disease (including both its epidemiology and the animal's reaction to it) are examined. The overall picture is confusing because there are different, and seemingly unrelated, ways of considering the issue. An attempt is made to put these together into a more general framework. Four processes of particular interest are distinguished and discussed in more detail: (i) the way a population's genetic potential for immunocompetence can be changed by breeding, (ii) the way an animal's immunocompetence is influenced by that animal's production potential, in combination with the environmental resources that are available to it at a given time, (iii) the way the disease status of an animal (and a population of animals) is influenced by its immunocompetence, and (iv) the way the production level of an animal is influenced by activation of its immune system. Ultimately, all four processes influence the realised level of production.
This comes down to four questions that need to be addressed: (i) can we use genetic variation in immunocompetence in animal breeding? (ii) does a higher production potential (today's direction of breeding) have a negative impact on immunocompetence? (iii) does improved immunocompetence result in improved health? and (iv) how large is the negative impact of disease on production?
Sea-ice cores from 11 sites in McMurdo Sound, Antarctica, were collected in 1982 and their crystallography examined. All but one were first-year sea ice. The cores, approximately 2 m long, consisted typically of a thin layer of granular or snow ice (approximately 0.1 m) followed by columnar-grained ice in the top metre and platelet ice in the bottom metre. Salinity and temperature measurements are reported. The columnar-grained ice usually had a strong preferred c-axis orientation in the horizontal plane and also showed a change in this preferred direction with depth in the ice. The mean c-axis orientation, however, usually aligned well with measured or implied currents in the Sound. The platelets were usually aligned with c axis horizontal or close to horizontal, and did not exhibit as marked a preferred orientation as the columnar-grained ice.
To determine if total lifetime physical activity (PA) is associated with better cognitive functioning with aging and if cerebrovascular function mediates this association. A sample of 226 (52.2% female) community dwelling middle-aged and older adults (66.5±6.4 years) in the Brain in Motion Study, completed the Lifetime Total Physical Activity Questionnaire and underwent neuropsychological and cerebrovascular blood flow testing. Multiple robust linear regressions were used to model the associations between lifetime PA and global cognition after adjusting for age, sex, North American Adult Reading Test results (i.e., an estimate of premorbid intellectual ability), maximal aerobic capacity, body mass index and interactions between age, sex, and lifetime PA. Mediation analysis assessed the effect of cerebrovascular measures on the association between lifetime PA and global cognition. Post hoc analyses assessed past year PA and current fitness levels relation to global cognition and cerebrovascular measures. Better global cognitive performance was associated with higher lifetime PA (p=.045), recreational PA (p=.021), and vigorous intensity PA (p=.004), PA between the ages of 0 and 20 years (p=.036), and between the ages of 21 and 35 years (p<.0001). Cerebrovascular measures did not mediate the association between PA and global cognition scores (p>.5), but partially mediated the relation between current fitness and global cognition. This study revealed significant associations between higher levels of PA (i.e., total lifetime, recreational, vigorous PA, and past year) and better cognitive function in later life. Current fitness levels relation to cognitive function may be partially mediated through current cerebrovascular function. (JINS, 2015, 21, 816–830)
While regular astronomical image archive searches can find images at a fixed location, they cannot find images of moving targets such as asteroids or comets. The Solar System Object Image Search (SSOIS) at the Canadian Astronomy Data Centre allows users to search for images of moving objects, allowing precoveries. SSOIS accepts as input either an object designation, a list of observations, a set of orbital elements, or a user-generated ephemeris for an object. It then searches for observations of that object over a range of dates. The user is then presented with a list of images containing that object from a variety of archives. Initially created to search the CFHT MegaCam archive, SSOIS has been extended to other telescopes including Gemini, Subaru/SuprimeCam, WISE, HST, the SDSS, AAT, the ING telescopes, the ESO telescopes, and the NOAO telescopes (KPNO/CTIO/WIYN), for a total of 24.5 million images. As the Pan-STARRS and Hyper Suprime-Cam archives become available, they will be incorporated as well. The SSOIS tool is located on the web at http://www.cadc-ccda.hia-iha.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/en/ssois/.
Not all patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome (ACS) receiving cardiac troponin (cTn) testing present to the emergency department (ED) with cardiac chest pain. Since elderly patients (age ≥70) have increased morbidity and mortality associated with ACS, complaints other than cardiac chest pain may justify cTn testing. Our primary objective was to characterize the population of ED patients who receive cTn testing. The secondary objective was to determine if elderly patients underwent cTn testing for different presenting complaints than their younger counterparts.
We created an electronic database including Canadian Emergency Department Information Systems (CEDIS) presenting complaints, age, sex, disposition, and Canadian Triage Acuity Scale (CTAS) score, for patients who received cTn testing in three Canadian EDs during 2011. We analyzed the data for patient characteristics and sorted by age (<70 and ≥70) for further analysis.
In the 15,824 included patients, the average age was 66 (51%<70; 51% female). The most common presenting complaints were cardiac chest pain (n=3,267) and shortness of breath (n=2,266). The elderly underwent cTn testing for significantly (p<0.0001) different complaints than their younger counterparts. They more commonly presented with generalized weakness (n=898), whereas younger patients more frequently had abdominal pain (n=576).
Cardiac chest pain and shortness of breath are presenting complaints in one-third of patients undergoing ED cTn testing. The majority of patients undergoing cTn testing did not have typical ACS symptoms. Half of all cTn testing in the ED is on the elderly, who present with different complaints than their younger counterparts.
Understanding the nutritional demands on serving military personnel is critical to inform training schedules and dietary provision. Troops deployed to Afghanistan face austere living and working environments. Observations from the military and those reported in the British and US media indicated possible physical degradation of personnel deployed to Afghanistan. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the changes in body composition and nutritional status of military personnel deployed to Afghanistan and how these were related to physical fitness. In a cohort of British Royal Marines (n 249) deployed to Afghanistan for 6 months, body size and body composition were estimated from body mass, height, girth and skinfold measurements. Energy intake (EI) was estimated from food diaries and energy expenditure measured using the doubly labelled water method in a representative subgroup. Strength and aerobic fitness were assessed. The mean body mass of volunteers decreased over the first half of the deployment ( − 4·6 (sd 3·7) %), predominately reflecting fat loss. Body mass partially recovered (mean +2·2 (sd 2·9) %) between the mid- and post-deployment periods (P< 0·05). Daily EI (mean 10 590 (sd 3339) kJ) was significantly lower than the estimated daily energy expenditure (mean 15 167 (sd 1883) kJ) measured in a subgroup of volunteers. However, despite the body mass loss, aerobic fitness and strength were well maintained. Nutritional provision for British military personnel in Afghanistan appeared sufficient to maintain physical capability and micronutrient status, but providing appropriate nutrition in harsh operational environments must remain a priority.
Emergency department (ED) patients with symptoms of cardiac ischemia often require a second cardiac troponin (cTn) measurement to rule out non–ST elevation myocardial infarction. We measured the total turnaround time and the component event times following the ordering of the second cTn level to ED discharge to identify root causes of delays.
We reviewed a random sample of ED discharges following a second normal cTn measurement and recorded associated event times. The central tendency of time intervals is reported as median and mean number of minutes with interquartile ranges (IQRs) and 95% confidence intervals, respectively.
From 9,656 eligible cases, we randomly selected 226 for data collection. The median number of minutes for each event are as follows: from ordering the second cTn measurement to the time of ED discharge was 90 minutes (IQR 65–120); for blood collection from the time the collection was ordered for was 0 minutes (IQR 212–0); from blood collection to the time the blood was transported to the laboratory was 9 minutes (IQR 2–19); laboratory process duration was 44 minutes (IQR 39–52); from when the results were available to the time the patient was discharged was 30 minutes (IQR 15–52).
For ED patients discharged following two normal cTn levels, the laboratory processing time and time from the result being available to the time of ED discharge represent the longest modifiable time periods to reduce ED length of stay.
Pulsed d.c Magnetron Sputtering (PdcMS) has been investigated for the first time to study the deposition of copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS) thin films for photovoltaic applications. Pulsing the d.c. in the mid frequency region enhances the ion intensity and enables long term arc-free operation for the deposition of high resistivity materials such as CIGS. It has the potential to produce films with good crystallinity, even at low substrate temperatures. However, the technique has not generally been applied to the absorber layers for photovoltaic applications. The growth of stoichiometric p-type CIGS with the desired electro-optical properties has always been a challenge, particularly over large areas, and has involved multiple steps often including a dangerous selenization process to compensate for selenium vacancies. The films deposited by PdcMS had a nearly ideal composition (Cu0.75In0.88Ga0.12Se2) as deposited at substrate temperatures ranging from no intentional heating to 400 °C. The films were found to be very dense and pin-hole free. The stoichiometry was independent of heating during the deposition, but the grain size increased with substrate temperature, reaching about ∼ 150 nm at 400 °C. Hot probe analysis showed that the layers were p-type. The physical, structural and optical properties of these films were analyzed using SEM, EDX, XRD, and UV-VIS-NIR spectroscopy. The material characteristics suggest that these films can be used for solar cell applications. This novel ion enhanced single step low temperature deposition technique may have a critical role in flexible and tandem solar cell applications compared to other conventional techniques which require higher temperatures.