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Problematic internet users suffer from impairment in a variety of cognitive domains. Research suggests that COMT haplotypes exert differential effects on cognition. We sought to investigate differences in the genetic profiles of problematic internet users and whether those could shed light on potential cognitive differences.
We recruited 206 non-treatment seeking participants with heightened impulsive traits and obtained cross-sectional demographic, clinical, and cognitive data as well as the genetic haplotypes of COMT rs4680 and rs4818. We identified 24 participants who presented with problematic internet use (PIU) and compared PIU and non-PIU participants using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and chi square as appropriate.
PIU was associated with worse performance on decision making, rapid visual processing, and spatial working memory tasks. Genetic variants were associated with altered cognitive performance, but rates of PIU did not statistically differ for particular haplotypes of COMT.
This study indicates that PIU is characterized by deficits in decision making and working memory domains; it also provides evidence for elevated impulsive responses and impaired target detection on a sustained attention task, which is a novel area worth exploring further in future work. The effects observed in the genetic influences on cognition of PIU subjects imply that the genetic heritable components of PIU may not lie within the genetic loci influencing COMT function and cognitive performance; or that the genetic component in PIU involves many genetic polymorphisms each conferring only a small effect.
Uterine anomalies are a relatively common congenital abnormality, with uterine septum being the most common (Table 8.1.1). This is even truer in patients with recurrent pregnancy loss, in whom rates of uterine abnormalities may approach 15% to 27%. Historically, the uterine septum has been approached via laparotomy through either a Tompkins or Jones procedure. These successful but highly morbid procedures required laparotomy, significant hospital stays, and subsequent cesarean delivery and had a high risk of adhesion formation. More recently, this surgery has been supplanted by hysteroscopic or other minimally invasive methodologies for treatment. This section focuses on the embryologic development of the genital tract that may lead to mullerian abnormalities, discusses the work-up of patients before treatment, evaluates the appropriate candidates for surgical procedures, and discusses the technical aspects of the procedure itself, postoperative recommendations, and results of various modalities of treatment. In addition, complications specific to these procedures are reviewed.
It is unclear what the exact rate of mullerian abnormalities is in the general population as there have been no good cross-sectional studies of normal patients. It is believed that the incidence is in the range of 1% to 6%, and there are numerous variations. The American Fertility Society (now the American Society for Reproductive Medicine) has published a classification system to standardize the nomenclature among surgeons (Tables 8.1.1, 8.1.2).
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