Several new materials in the CsBi4Te6, A2Bi8Se13, (A = K, Rb, Cs), HoNiSb, Ba/Ge/B (B = In, Sn), and AgPbBiQ3 (Q = S, Se, Te) systems have shown promising characteristics for thermoelectric applications. New synthesis techniques are able to produce samples at much higher rates than previously possible. This has led to a persistent challenge in thermoelectric materials research of rapid and comprehensive characterization of samples. This paper presents a description of a new 4-sample transport measurement system and the related measurement techniques. Special features of the system include fully computer-controlled operation (implemented in LabView™) for simultaneous measurement of electrical conductivity, thermo-electric power, and thermal conductivity. This system has been successfully used to characterize several new thermoelectric materials (including some of the above-mentioned compounds) and reference materials exhibiting a wide range of thermal conductivities.