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We present first results of a new heterodyne spectrometer dedicated to high-resolution spectroscopy of molecules of astrophysical importance. The spectrometer, based on a room-temperature heterodyne receiver, is sensitive to frequencies between 75 and 110 GHz with an instantaneous bandwidth of currently 2.5 GHz in a single sideband. The system performance, in particular the sensitivity and stability, is evaluated. Proof of concept of this spectrometer is demonstrated by recording the emission spectrum of methyl cyanide, CH3CN. Compared to state-of-the-art radio telescope receivers the instrument is less sensitive by about one order of magnitude. Nevertheless, the capability for absolute intensity measurements can be exploited in various experiments, in particular for the interpretation of the ever richer spectra in the ALMA era. The ease of operation at room-temperature allows for long time integration, the fast response time for integration in chirped pulse instruments or for recording time dependent signals. Future prospects as well as limitations of the receiver for the spectroscopy of complex organic molecules (COMs) are discussed.
The present study is dealing with the basic physics for a novel way to generate a free-formed ceramic body, not like common layer by layer, but directly by Selective Volume Sintering (SVS) in a compact block of ceramic powder. To penetrate with laser light into the volume of a ceramic powder compact it is necessary to investigate the light scattering properties of ceramic powders. Compared with polymers and metals, ceramic materials are unique as they offer a wide optical window of transparency. The optical window typically ranges from below 0.3 up to 5 µm wave length. In the present study thin layers of quartz glass (SiO2) particles have been prepared. As a function of layer thickness and the particle size, transmission and reflection spectra in a wave length range between 0.5 and 2.5 µm have been recorded. Depending on the respective particle size and by choosing a proper relation between particle size and wave length of the incident laser radiation, it is found that light can penetrate a powder compact up to a depth of a few millimeters. With an adjustment of the light absorption properties of the compact the initiation of sintering in the volume of the compact is possible.
Decline in social functioning occurs in individuals who later develop psychosis.
To investigate whether baseline differences in disability are present in those who do and those who do not make a transition to psychosis in a group clinically at high risk and whether disability is a risk factor for transition.
Prospective multicentre, naturalistic field study with an 18-month follow-up period on 245 help-seeking individuals clinically at high risk. Disability was assessed with the Disability Assessment Schedule of the World Health Organization (WHODAS–II).
At baseline, the transition group displayed significantly greater difficulties in making new friends (z =−3.40, P = 0.001), maintaining a friendship (z =−3.00, P = 0.003), dealing with people they do not know (z =−2.28, P = 0.023) and joining community activities (z =−2.0, P = 0.05) compared with the non-transition group. In Cox regression, difficulties in getting along with people significantly contributed to the prediction of transition to psychosis in our sample (β = 0.569, s.e. = 0.184, Wald = 9.548, P = 0.002, hazard ratio (HR) = 1.767, 95% CI 1.238–2.550).
Certain domains of social disability might contribute to the prediction of psychosis in a sample clinically at high risk.
Cognitive disturbances have been demonstrated in individuals with
potentially prodromal symptoms in objective–neuropsychological as well as
subjective-symptomatic studies. Yet, the relation between subjective and
objective deficits and to different prodromal states is unclear
To explore interactions between subjective and objective cognitive
measures in different prodromal states
In participants with an early (n=33) or late
(n=69) initial prodromal state, cognitive subjective
and objective deficits were assessed with the Schizophrenia Proneness
Instrument and a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery
Participants with an early initial prodromal state were less impaired
than those with a late initial state. Subjective and objective cognitive
deficits were unrelated, excepttime-limited neurocognitive speed measures
and subjectively reduced stress tolerance, especially in participants
with an early initial prodromal state
Subjective and objective cognitive deficits are generally unrelated in
the psychosis prodrome and as such they can add complementary information
valuable for prediction. However, possible associations between the two
levels might be better detectable in the less impaired early initial
Depression is a frequent condition in early psychosis. Therefore, early
detection instruments should distinguish depression from beginning
To examine whether basic symptoms, i.e. subtle subjective deficits,
differ between participants suffering from a potential prodrome
(n = 146), first-episode schizophrenia
(n= 153) and non-psychotic depression
(n = 115)
Basic symptoms were assessed with the Schizophrenia Proneness
The prodrome and schizophrenia groups did not differ in level of basic
symptoms but both had higher levels than the depression group. DSM – IV
depression was frequent in those suffering from a potential prodrome
(38%) and first-episode schizophrenia (21%). In both groups, participants
with and without depression did not differ in basic symptoms. In
multivariate analyses, consideration of current depression generally
facilitated correct group classification, except for participants
suffering from both a potential prodrome and depression
Cognitive basic symptoms distinguished well between all three groups.
However, identification of persons suffering from a potential prodrome
might be enhanced by considering current affective status
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